Second Republic

Second Republic

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Alfonso XIII of Spain assumed power in 1902. Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. He also prevented liberal reforms being introduced before the First World War.

Blamed for the Spanish defeat in the Moroccan War (1921) Alfonso was in constant conflict with Spanish politicians. His anti-democratic views encouraged Miguel Primo de Rivera to lead a military coup in 1923. He promised to eliminate corruption and to regenerate Spain. In order to do this he suspended the constitution, established martial law and imposed a strict system of censorship.

Miguel Primo de Rivera initially said he would rule for only 90 days, however, he broke this promise and remained in power. Little social reform took place but he tried to reduce unemployment by spending money on public works. To pay for this Primo de Rivera introduced higher taxes on the rich. When they complained he changed his policies and attempted to raise money by public loans. This caused rapid inflation and after losing support of the army was forced to resign in January 1930.

In 1931 Alfonso XIII agreed to democratic elections. It was the first time for nearly sixty years that free elections had been allowed in Spain. When the Spanish people voted overwhelmingly for a republic, Alfonso was advised that the only way to avoid large-scale violence was to go into exile. Alfonso agreed and left the country on 14th April, 1931.

The provisional government called a general election for June 1931. The Socialist Party (PSOE) and other left wing parties won an overwhelming victory. Niceto Alcala Zamora, a moderate Republican, became prime minister, but included in his cabinet several radical figures such as Manuel Azaña, Francisco Largo Caballero and Indalecio Prieto.

On 16th October 1931, Azaña replaced Niceto Alcala Zamora as prime minister. With the support of the Socialist Party (PSOE) he attempted to introduce agrarian reform and regional autonomy. However, these measures were blocked in the Cortes.

Azaña believed that the Catholic Church was responsible for Spain's backwardness. He defended the elimination of special privileges for the Church on the grounds that Spain had ceased to be Catholic. Azaña was criticized by the Catholic Church for not doing more to stop the burning of religious buildings in May 1931. He controversially remarked that burning of "all the convents in Spain was not worth the life of a single Republican".

The failed military coup led by José Sanjurjo on 10th August, 1932, rallied support for Azaña's government. It was now possible for him to get the Agrarian Reform Bill and the Catalan Statute passed by the Cortes. However, the modernization programme of the Azaña administration was undermined by a lack of financial resources.

The November 1933 elections saw the right-wing CEDA party win 115 seats whereas the Socialist Party only managed 58. CEDA now formed a parliamentary alliance with the Radical Party. Over the next two years the new administration demolished the reforms that had been introduced by Manuel Azaña and his government.

This led to a general strike on 4th October 1934 and an armed rising in Asturias. Azaña was accused of encouraging these disturbances and on 7th October he was arrested and interned on a ship in Barcelona Harbour. However, no evidence could be found against him and he was released on 18th December.

Azaña was also accused of supplying arms to the Asturias insurrectionaries. In March 1935, the matter was debated in the Cortes, where Azaña defended himself in a three-hour speech. On 6th April, 1935, the Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees acquitted Azaña.

On 15th January 1936, Manuel Azaña helped to establish a coalition of parties on the political left to fight the national elections due to take place the following month. This included the Socialist Party (PSOE), Communist Party ( PCE), Esquerra Party and the Republican Union Party.

The Popular Front, as the coalition became known, advocated the restoration of Catalan autonomy, amnesty for political prisoners, agrarian reform, an end to political blacklists and the payment of damages for property owners who suffered during the revolt of 1934. The Anarchists refused to support the coalition and instead urged people not to vote.

Right-wing groups in Spain formed the National Front. This included the CEDA and the Carlists. The Falange Española did not officially join but most of its members supported the aims of the National Front.

The Spanish people voted on Sunday, 16th February, 1936. Out of a possible 13.5 million voters, over 9,870,000 participated in the 1936 General Election. 4,654,116 people (34.3) voted for the Popular Front, whereas the National Front obtained 4,503,505 (33.2) and the centre parties got 526,615 (5.4). The Popular Front, with 263 seats out of the 473 in the Cortes formed the new government.

The Popular Front government immediately upset the conservatives by releasing all left-wing political prisoners. The government also introduced agrarian reforms that penalized the landed aristocracy. Other measures included transferring right-wing military leaders such as Francisco Franco to posts outside Spain, outlawing the Falange Española and granting Catalonia political and administrative autonomy.

As a result of these measures the wealthy took vast sums of capital out of the country. This created an economic crisis and the value of the peseta declined which damaged trade and tourism. With prices rising workers demanded higher wages. This led to a series of strikes in Spain.

On the 10th May 1936 the conservative Niceto Alcala Zamora was ousted as president and replaced by the left-wing Manuel Azaña. Soon afterwards Spanish Army officers, including Emilio Mola, Francisco Franco, Juan Yague, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Sanjurjo, began plotting to overthrow the Popular Front government. This resulted in the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War on 17th July, 1936.

We have reason on our side and, therefore, force, though so far we have used force with moderation. If an attempt is made to trick us into a compromise which our conscience considers dishonourable, we shall demand greater penalties, and impose them with greater severity. Neither I, nor the garrisons of Aragon, from whom I have just received a telegram in support, will agree to anything but a military dictatorship. If the politicians make an attempt to defend themselves, we shall do the same, relying on the help of the people, whose reserves of energy are great. Today we are resolved on moderation, but, on the other hand, we shall not shrink from bloodshed.

Sunday's elections have shown me that I no longer enjoy the love of my people. I could very easily find means to support my royal powers against all comers, but I am determined to have nothing to do with setting one of my countrymen against another in a fratricidal civil war. Thus, until the nation speaks, I shall deliberately suspend the use of my royal prerogative.

Life for the Spanish peasants was poor materially by English standards. They had an obvious love of the land, though their methods had not changed for a thousand years. There were the same low stone buildings with the single wooden bench used for both bed and table. Chickens, pigs, goats and every other animal, had free access to the living quarters. Ploughing consisted of the scratching of the ground with a wooden implement which was nothing more than a sharp-edged pole pulled by mules or donkeys. The corn was cut by hand and gathered by the women and children. Everybody in the village would take part.

History [ edit | edit source ]

It rose after the Diaspora in 3500 when colonies had diversified vastly and were now looking for leadership. There was a growing conflict between different factions that looked to become hegemonic powers. The Market Authority, the Market Consortium, relic Zaibatsus and the Priory of Cyan were vying for interplanetary power.

Eventually, with the unity provided by the Church and economic interests heralded by mercantile leaders, the Second Republic was born, a democratic government which eventually spanned all the worlds of Human Space.

As the Republic took hold, an unprecedented era of prosperity and high technology was initiated. It seemed that there were no limits to human development, no secrets which could not be unlocked by the power of the human mind, along with a little ingenuity and grit.

But power eventually seems to coalesce into the hands of a few, especially when the people are no longer vigilant. The noble houses of the Diaspora, still rich but now relegated to meaningless roles, hungered for the vast power they once had and plotted against the Republic. They were aided by a new milleniallism and apocalyptic fever, for scientists had discovered a new, dread phenomenon: the suns were fading. The stars grew dim and no one knew why.

The republic ended after around 500 years in what is known as the Fall. The government could not calm the fears of all the worlds, and the untimely crash of the welfare computer system caused riots in every major city on every planet. Rebels rose up and with lightning speed, claimed the central government on Byzantium Secundus. The nobles joined together with the Church to free the capital. Victorious, they refused to return power to the senators and instead seized power for themselves. This ushered in a new age for humanity: a Dark Age of feudal lords, fanatic priests and scheming guilds.

The Second Republic and Second Empire

The overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in February 1848 still seems, in retrospect, a puzzling event. The revolution has been called a result without a cause more properly, it might be called a result out of proportion to its cause. Since 1840 the regime had settled into a kind of torpid stability but it had provided the nation with peace abroad and relative prosperity at home. Louis-Philippe and his ministers had prided themselves on their moderation, their respect for the ideal of cautious balance embodied in the concept of juste-milieu. France seemed to be arriving at last at a working compromise that blended traditional ways with the reforms of the Revolutionary era.

There were, nevertheless, persistent signs of discontent. The republicans had never forgiven Louis-Philippe for “confiscating” their revolution in 1830. The urban workers, moved by their misery and by the powerful social myths engendered by the Revolution of 1789, remained unreconciled. For a decade or more they had been increasingly drawn toward socialism in its various utopian forms. An unprecedented flowering of socialist thought marked the years 1830–48 in France: this was the generation of the Saint-Simonians (followers of utopian thinker Henri de Saint-Simon [1760–1825]) and of Charles Fourier, Auguste Blanqui, Louis Blanc, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Étienne Cabet, and many others. Most of these system builders preached persuasion rather than violence, but they stimulated the hopes of the common man for an imminent transformation of society. Women also began to question existing social arrangements the first French feminist groups grew out of the Saint-Simonian movement in 1831–32. Within the bourgeoisie as well, there was strong and vocal pressure for change in the form of a broadening of the political elite. Bills to extend the suffrage (and the right to hold office) to the middle bourgeoisie were repeatedly introduced in parliament but were stubbornly opposed by Guizot. Even the National Guard, that honour society of the lesser bourgeoisie, became infected with this mood of dissatisfaction.

Other factors, too, contributed to this mood. In 1846 a crop failure quickly developed into a full-scale economic crisis: food became scarce and expensive many businesses went bankrupt unemployment rose. Within the governing elite itself there were signs of a moral crisis: scandals that implicated some high officials of the regime and growing dissension among the notables. Along with this went a serious alienation of many intellectuals. Novelists such as Victor Hugo, George Sand, and Eugène Sue glorified the common man the caricaturist Honoré Daumier exposed the foibles of the nation’s leaders and historians such as Jules Michelet and Alphonse de Lamartine wrote with romantic passion about the heroic episodes of the Great Revolution.

Beginning in 1847, the leaders of the opposition set out to take advantage of this restless mood and to force the regime to grant liberal reforms. Since public political meetings were illegal, they undertook a series of political “banquets” to mobilize the forces of discontent. This campaign was to be climaxed by a mammoth banquet in Paris on February 22, 1848. But the government, fearing violence, ordered the affair canceled. On the 22nd, crowds of protesting students and workers gathered in the streets and began to clash with the police. The king and Guizot expected no serious trouble: the weather was bad, and a large army garrison was available in case of need. But the disorders continued to spread, and the loyalty of the National Guard began to seem dubious. Toward the end of two days of rioting, Louis-Philippe faced a painful choice: unleash the army (which would mean a bloodbath) or appease the demonstrators. Reluctantly, he chose the second course and announced that he would replace the hated Guizot as his chief minister. But the concession came too late. That evening, an army unit guarding Guizot’s official residence clashed with a mob of demonstrators, some 40 of whom died in the fusillade. By the morning of February 24, the angry crowd was threatening the royal palace. Louis-Philippe, confronted by the prospect of civil war, hesitated and then retreated once more he announced his abdication in favour of his nine-year-old grandson and fled to England.

History - Second Republic

The Spanish Republic and commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the previous and short-lived First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), was the democratic republican administration that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.

Following the Provisional Government between April and December 1931, the 1931 Constitution established the Republic. The Spanish Republic can be divided in three eras: the First Biennium, the Dark Biennium, and the Popular Front government. The Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed when King Alfonso XIII left the country following municipal elections where anti-monarchist candidates won the majority of votes. Its government went into exile on 1 April 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered to the rebel nacionales (led in part by Generalissimo Francisco Franco, 1892–1975), ending the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).

The government in exile of the Second Spanish Republic had an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. After the restoration of democracy in Spain, the government formally dissolved the following year. | Wikipedia CC-BY-SA

Second Philippine Republic

October 14, 2015 marks the 72nd anniversary of the Second Philippine Republic, which was inaugurated on this day in 1943, with Jose P. Laurel as President.


The Second Philippine Republic was established during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. At the outset of the occupation, the Japanese government established a military administration over the Philippines, as well as the Philippine Executive Commission, composed of several pre-war Filipino political leaders. The KALIBAPI (Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas) was also organized, designed to be the sole and exclusive political organization in the Philippines.

On June 16, 1943, Premier Hideki Tojo promised independence to the Philippines. The KALIBAPI would then form the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence (PCPI), which was tasked with drafting a new Constitution. The new Constitution was approved by the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence on September 4, 1943 and ratified by the KALIBAPI on September 7, 1943.

The KALIBAPI then proceeded to elect part of the new National Assembly, which also included appointed members in turn, the National Assembly elected its Speaker and then elected Jose P. Laurel as President. On October 14, 1943, in ceremonies in front of the Legislative Building in Manila, the new Republic was inaugurated, and Jose P. Laurel, the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee, assumed office as President.

On September 21, 1944, President Laurel proclaimed martial law in the Philippines (it came into effect on September 22). On September 23, 1944, Laurel proclaimed that the Philippines was “in a state of war” with the Allied Powers—but this was never ratified by the National Assembly. In large part, Japanese dissapointment with Laurel led to the Republic under Laurel being superseded by the Makapili, organized in December, 1944 to more militantly oppose the returning American forces and Filipino guerrillas. The Japanese brought the Laurel government to Baguio in December, 1944, and a small remnant of that government was taken to Tokyo in March, 1945. Laurel formally dissolved the Second Republic on August 17, 1945, two days after Japan surrendered to the Allies.

When the Commonwealth government was restored on Philippine soil on October 23, 1944, Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur as military commander had issued a proclamation nullifying all acts of the Philippine Executive Commission and the Second Republic. The Supreme Court of the Philippines reiterated this nullification in a decision (G.R. No. L-5) on September 17, 1945 (and subsequent decisions), but pointed out President Osmeña recognized the validity of some judicial acts of a non-political nature. The Supreme Court categorized the Philippine Executive Commission and the Second Republic as a de facto (actual, whether by right or not) government, in contrast to the de jure (meaning rightful, or legitimate) status of the Commonwealth government. While this means no laws or regulations from the Second Republic are legally recognized, President Laurel has been included in the roster of Philippine presidents since the 1960s.

Many officials who served in the Philippine Executive Commission, the Second Republic and its various agencies were charged with treason but received an amnesty from President Manuel Roxas on January 28, 1948.

  • Learn more about the historical background of the Second Philippine Republic: Dr.Jose P. Laurel as President of the Second Philippine Republic, by Dr. Ricardo T. Jose



This is a painting by National Artist Fernando Amorsolo of Rafael Alunan, completed in 1923. Mr. Alunan had a long and distinguished career as a public servant in both the legislative and executive branches of government, serving as a member of the Quezon cabinet, then Commissioner in the Philippine Executive Commission, the Chairman of the National Planning Board and later as Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources as part of the Laurel cabinet. He died in a plane crash in 1948.

Mr. Alunan stands beside an accurate and detailed representation of the Philippine flag, which, at the start of the Second Philippine Republic, had been reverted to the Aguinaldo design which featured three yellow stars and an anthropomorphic eight-rayed sun. As such, this painting is a rare and invaluable resource to historians as to the original colors and design of the Philippine flag in 1898, until it was modified in the codification of the specifications of the Philippine flag in 1936. Those specifications were later reissued by the Second Republic, abandoning its brief adoption of the original Aguinaldo design.

PCDSPO would like to thank Mr. Rafael Alunan III, Mrs. Marot Fernandez, and the Alunan family for allowing us to photograph the painting.


A compilation of photos from the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, taken from the April 9, 1967 issue of The Sunday Times. This was the first of three issues on World War II in the Philippines, “its glory and despair, its anxiety and agony the soul-shaking excitement of events from Bataan, 1942 to the Battle of Manila, 1945.” The photoset also includes other photographs from the Presidential Museum and Library and from the website of Ms. Linda Stanfield, who kindly gave permission to include her collection of photographs from the Japanese Propaganda Corps.

View the entire photoset on the Presidential Museum and Library Flickr: The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines

In addition, the BBC Motion Gallery has a large collection of film clips of the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, from its partnership with NHK of Japan. Click this link to see a gallery of Japanese Occupation film clips, many of them taken from Japanese and Philippine newsreels of the era.

The Second Republic

The first military intervention in Nigeria occurred in January 1966 when the civilian government was overthrown in a military coup. This effectively marked the beginning and succession of military governments in the nation's political history. Military-rule continued till 1979 when the then Head of State, General Olusegun Obasanjo handed over power to the civilian government of President Shehu shagari.

A constituent assembly was elected in 1977 to draft a new constitution, which was published September 21, 1978, when the ban on political activity, in effect since the advent of military rule, was lifted. Political parties were formed, and candidates were nominated for president and vice president, the two houses of the National Assembly, governorships, and state houses of assembly. In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections in which a northerner, Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN), was elected president. All five parties won representation in the National Assembly.

In August 1983, Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. But the elections were marred by violence, and allegations of widespread vote rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results.

On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Maj. Gen. Muhammadu Buhari emerged as the leader of the Supreme Military Council (SMC), the country's new ruling body. He charged the civilian government with economic mismanagement, widespread corruption, election fraud, and a general lack of concern for the problems of Nigerians. He also pledged to restore prosperity to Nigeria and to return the government to civilian rule but was stymied in his attempt to deal with Nigeria's severe economic problems. Despite relative popularity for its no-nonsense approach in tackling corruption, the Buhari government was peacefully overthrown by the SMC's third-ranking member, Army Chief of Staff Maj. Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, in August 1985.

Babangida moved to restore freedom of the press and to release political detainees being held without charge. As part of a 15-month economic emergency, he announced stringent pay cuts for the military, police, and civil servants and enacted similar cuts for the private sector. Imports of rice, corn, and wheat were banned. Babangida orchestrated a national debate on proposed economic reform and recovery measures, which reportedly convinced him of intense opposition to an economic recovery package dependent on an International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan.

Nigeria again witnessed another round of military governments until 1993 when General Ibrahim Babaginda the head of the military government, put in place an interim civilian administration charged with conducting elections. This interim administration lasted for only three months when it was replaced in a palace coup by the military. The new military administration was headed by General Sani Abacha.

French Second Republic

The French Second Republic was the short-lived republican government of France between the French Revolution of 1848 and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's self-coup in 1851. The republic was born from a revolution against the constitutional monarchy ruling France caused by the suppression of free speech by the monarch.

On 23 February 1848, King Louis Philippe I dismissed the unpopular Prime Minister Francois Guizot in response to liberal demands, but the rioting against the July Monarchy intensified until King Louis Philippe abdicated on 24 February and fled to England. The Chamber of Deputies formed a provisional government, proclaiming the Second Republic. The government was split into the moderate French Republicans, led by Alphonse de Lamartine, and the socialists under Louis Blanc. In an attempt to placate hte socialists, the provisional government placed Blanc in charge of establishing a system of national workshops to provide assistance to unemployed workers. Although the socialists and other radical elements dominated Paris and drew supporrt in other cities such as Lyons and Marseilles, the rural areas and small towns remained basically conservative. When elections for the National Assembly, which would draft a new constitution, were held in April, the moderate republicans won an overwhelming victory. In the wake of their electoral triumph, the Moderate Republicans ordered the national workshops to shut down, leading to the bloody June Days revolt of 23-26 June 1848. General Louis-Eugene Cavaignac crushed the June Days revolt, ending the workers' unrest. In November 1848, the National Assembly completed the drafting of the constitution of the Second Republic. The constitution provided for a president and a one-house parliament, both to be elected by universal manhood suffrage.

In December 1848, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, whose name stood for order, stability, and national glory, polled over 5,000,000 votes and won the presidency. The combined votes for his opponents, including Lamartine, Cavaignac, and the socialist Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, totaled less than 2,000,000. From the beginning, Louis-Napoleon desired to follow his uncle's example and establish a dictatorship. After winning the presidency, Bonaparte set out to consolidate his support among the army, the middle class, the peasantry, and the Catholic Church. In 1849, he sent French troops to Rome to help restore the authority of Pope Pius IX in the wake of the Risorgimento movement, and he also increased the influence of the Catholic Church in French education. In December 1851, Louis Napoleon proclaimed himself president for life, and France's new constitution gave him ultimate authority. As head of the armed forces, he had the power to declare war and make peace. He also dominated the legislative process. The Council of State, which he also appointed, could reject laws it judged unconstitutional. The Legislative Body, elected by universal manhood suffrage, could amend legislation. The government influenced elections for the Legislative Body by providing financial support to pro-government candidates and by using local officials to count hte ballots. In late 1852, a plebiscite endorsed the re-establishment of the Bonapartist empire, and on 2 December 1852, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became Napoleon III.



The Micro-Republic of Kayenay had a merger with 2 other nations to create the Aedrian Empire, on July 19, 2018. Kayenay then operated under the name of "Aedrian State of the Diamond", and moving the capital to Powergarden from Fort KNA. Aedria was very unstable, and after tensions between the three, ended up dissolving on 31 July 2018, thus establishing the Second Republic of Kayenay.

NADP/WDTP And Restructuring of Kayenay

After parting ways with the other two nations, Kayenay joined NADP in the middle of the New Austas-NADP War, Having previous experiences.

At this period, Delphia was leading NADP. Delphia, being in the Delphian Sector, suffered mass amounts of warfare in that region, still continuing as of December 2020. Notable events include a time when a livestream by the nation of the now-defunct Astain, when midway through, Delphia was invaded by what seemed to be rebels, which turned out to be the Pablo Mexican Empire. A NADP emergency meeting was held, kickstarting the Pablo-Delphian War.

Later on, NADP, now called WDTP, had to deal with countless other things, such as conflicts with the nation of Naun. Kayenay also recieved two declarations of war, one from Catholique Socialist Republic in September 2018, in which got the declaration pulled back, and one from Everland (After being ridiculed by the micronational community over claims of roleplaying, which ended up sparking a war), both of which Kayenay declined, arguing that it requires both parties to sign a declaration of war

In December 2018, Kayenay attemped to start the Suordian Development project, which ended up failing.


After December 2018., Government involvement deteriorated to almost zero by May 2019, along with Kayenay leaving WDTP. There was an attempt at picking things back up in January-February 2019, but that attempt failed to pick up enough action to slip back into activity, to the point where only 1 person, the President, was a government official.

Return from Inactivity and Government Shutdown

On November 8, 2019, The President returned, creating a new amendment to the Constitution, including adding a charter of human rights, as well as passing the Kayenay Fair Price Act.

Even this return wasn't sufficient enough, however. in February 2020, the President issued a full government shutdown, originally scheduled to end in March of that year, but after the Coronavirus Pandemic, a major identity concealment happened, disguising Kayenay as "Cornland", and isolating Kayenay from every other micronation.

Dissolving of Kayenay

On December 4th, 2020, the President returned again, to write the Dissolution Act of 2020, to dissolve Kayenay into a new autonomous republic called The Office of Kayenay, with the dissolution finishing on the 8th of December. the Office of Kayenay was created to handle extra affairs, before it gets scheduled to dissolve on December 8th, 2021, unless a further law is passed to extend that date, or the Kayenayan Emergency Revert System allows the government to revert to a previous time.

The Philippines’s Second Republic and a forgotten Independence Day

In Photo: This June 12 photo shows flags displayed in Kawit, Cavite, where the first Philippine Independence was declared by Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo’s government is considered the First Republic.

Second of three parts

THE Philippines as an independent nation is now currently under the Fifth Republic. The government of Emilio Aguinaldo that declared Philippine independence on June 12, 1898, is considered the First Republic.

The Second Republic is acknowledged as the government headed by President Jose P. Laurel, which was established during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.

The Third Republic was the government established on July 4, 1946, with the dissolution of the Philippine Commonwealth. The Third Republic was headed by Manuel L. Quezon and, following his death, Sergio Osmeña Sr.

The Third Republic lasted until 1972, when President Ferdinand E. Marcos declared martial law in September of that year. His rule is now classified as the Fourth Republic, which ended with his overthrow in 1986.

The Fifth Republic came into existence when the 1987 Constitution was ratified, with Mrs. Aquino as president. Since then, all the succeeding administrations after 1987 are classified as being under the Fifth Republic.

The Philippine Executive Commission

ACCORDING to John Ray Ramos, a heritage conservation advocate, “the Second Republic had its roots during the tumultuous days of WWII [World War II] when Commonwealth President Quezon and selected members of administration was brought to the US fortress island of Corregidor.”

“As Quezon fled, Manila was declared an ‘Open City’ to protect it from destruction,” added Ramos, who is also a history instructor from the Diliman campus of Far Eastern University.

Even as Quezon left Manila for the temporary refuge of Corregidor, he issued instructions to officials of the Commonwealth government that were left behind.

According to Ramos, Quezon told these officials to “enter into agreements and compromises” with the Imperial Japanese government and its conquering army in order to “mitigate the sufferings of the people.”

Japanese officials proceeded to establish a Philippine Executive Commission (PEC) on January 23, 1942. The PEC was headed by Jorge Vargas as chairman and had the following members: Benigno Aquino Sr. (head of the interior), Antonio de las Alas (head of finance), Jose P. Laurel (justice secretary), Claro M. Recto (head for the departments of education, health and public welfare), Quintin Paredes (head of public works and communication) and Jose Yulo (Chief Justice of the Supreme Court).

Also established at around this time was the only political organization allowed in the Philippines: the Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas or Kalibapi.

Abad Santos’s death

EVEN as the PEC came into being and the Kalibapi asserted civil control, the Commonwealth government under Quezon was being turned into a government-in-exile.

In March 1942 Quezon designated Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos as the caretaker President of the remnants of the Commonwealth government.

After Japanese forces captured Santos in Cebu, he was offered a role in the new civil administration. Santos refused and he was executed on May 2, 1942.

The killing of Santos was a bitter reminder for the remaining Commonwealth officials of what awaited them if they dared go against the wishes of Imperial Japan.

A new Constitution

SEVERAL weeks after Santos was executed, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo promised on June 16, 1943, to grant independence to the Philippines.

After Tojo made the offer, the Kalibapi organized the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence (PCPI), which was tasked to draft a new Constitution for the Philippines.

It was a simple job for the members of the PCPI. All they did was adopt the 12 of the Articles of the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution. However, the Constitution they drafted was notable for not having a Bill of Rights.

The Kalibapi ratified this Constitution on September 7, 1943, and a new National Assembly was formed. On September 20, 1943, the Kalibapi held a party convention to elect 54 members of the National Assembly, which was supposed to have 108 members.

The remaining 54 slots in the National Assembly were reserved for city mayors and governors who were elected under the Commonwealth government and had survived the onset of hostilities.

Forgotten Independence Day

THE Kalibapi proceeded to elect part of the new National Assembly, which also included appointed members. The National Assembly elected Jose P. Laurel as President.

On October 14, 1943, Laurel’s government was formally inaugurated in front of the Legislative Building, which now serves as the National Museum. “This was the moment of birth of the Second Republic,” Ramos said. “And October 14, 1943 could be considered another date for Philippine independence.”

Laurel’s presidency

THOUGH Laurel did assume the presidency even if the Philippines was under Japanese occupation, his official actions and decisions could be seen as fulfilling Quezon’s orders.

One controversial act credited to Laurel was on September 23, 1943, when he proclaimed that the Philippines was in a “state of war” with the US and its allies.

However, under the Constitution, a declaration of war must be approved by the National Assembly for it to be official. Such subterfuge Laurel effectively prevented the Japanese government from conscripting Filipinos to fight against the US and its allies.

Because of this, Japanese occupation officials and forces no longer relied on the Kalibapi’s cooperation. “This is an important point to consider,” Ramos explained. “Because of Laurel’s actions and the Kalibapi’s reluctance to support Japanese initiatives, the Japanese occupation officials formed a new organization known as the Makapili [Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino].”

The Makapili was formed after Laurel refused to allow Japanese officials to conscript Filipinos into the Japanese military.

“Unlike the Kalibapi, the [Makapili] was formed as a grassroots organization,” Ramos explained. “The group was composed of Filipinos who fully supported the Japanese. The lasting image in the Filipino psyche of the Makapili is the masked informer who pointed out for the Japanese those who were actively guerrilla supporters or actual members.”

When Laurel refused to allow Japan to conscript Filipinos as soldiers of Imperial Japan, he took a very grave risk, according to Ramos.

Fortunately, there were still Japanese officials who still clung to the idea of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Doing anything untoward to Laurel could jeopardize their propaganda of a benevolent Japan in Asia.

Historian on Laurel

RAMOS said Laurel’s legacy as President of the Second Republic was best explained by his professor, noted historian Ricardo Jose.

“The Japanese approved of Laurel, because they felt he—having served as lawyer for some Japanese before the war and having had a son study in the Japanese Military Academy, in addition to his own honorary doctorate from the University of Tokyo—would be pro-Japanese,” Jose wrote in an essay, titled “Dr. Jose P. Laurel as President of the Second Philippine Republic.” “In this, they were wrong.”

“To view Laurel’s administration in proper perspective, the conditions of the Philippines in late 1943 have to be examined,” Jose wrote. “First of all, [WWII] was brewing in Europe and Asia. The Japanese military presence dominated the Japanese-occupied Philippines and, even though independence had been declared, the Laurel government had to sign a pact of alliance with Japan.”

According to Jose, a part of the pact “stated in no uncertain terms that ‘the Philippines will afford all kinds of facilities for military actions to be undertaken by Japan.”’ Likewise, the pact stated the Philippines and Japan “will closely cooperate with each other to safeguard the territorial integrity and independence of the Philippines.”

Jose wrote that Japanese garrisons and outposts ringed Malacañan Palace, the seat of government.

“In September 1944, some 10,000 Japanese servicemen surrounded the palace and some 100,000 armed Japanese occupied the whole of Greater Manila,” Jose wrote. “In mid-1944, no less than the Commanding General of Japan’s Southern Army—which covered not just the Philippines but the whole of Southeast Asia and New Guinea—made Manila his headquarters.”

According to Jose, Laurel had only 300 Presidential Guards to defend the palace.

Damocles sword

JOSE described this situation as a “Sword of Damocles” hanging over Laurel’s head. And despite the formal Philippine “independence” declared on October 14, 1943, Laurel presided over a “crippled” government. “The Japanese military presence and the war led to corollary problems, among them a shortage of food, clothing, fuel and other basic commodities,” Jose wrote. “The Japanese Military Administration had taken over most of the pre-war government-owned or -controlled corporations, and had created controlled agencies to supervise the acquisition, transport and distribution of foods, fuel, prime commodities and sugar.”

Jose added that with “strategic commodities out of Filipino hands, the republic was crippled economically.”

Jose said Laurel “had to give in when it was impossible to push hard, to gain more advantageous position in other areas and to forward the interests of the Philippines and the Filipinos.”

“The Japanese had hoped Mr. Laurel would follow their prodding and hints and act as a puppet president, but they were disappointed,” Jose added.

Eventually, as US forces supported by Filipino guerrilla units defeated the remnants of the Imperial Japanese forces in the Philippines, the Japanese brought Laurel and his family to Tokyo. It was the intention of the Japanese for Laurel to form a government-in-exile.

Bombing the Japanese

SUBSEQUENT events did not conform to Imperial Japan’s wishes.

After the US dropped atomic bombs on and destroyed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese Emperor Hirohito bypassed military advisers and generals and urged Japan to “accept the unacceptable.”

When the Imperial Japanese government surrendered on August 17, 1945, Laurel dissolved the Second Philippine Republic and its so-called independence, according to Jose.

“In view of the reoccupation of the Philippines by the United States and the re-establishment therein of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the acceptance by Japan of the Potsdam Declaration of July 26, 1945, and the consequent termination of the Greater East Asia War, the Republic of the Philippines had ceased to exist,” Laurel formally declared.

Second Republic

By 17 ABY, the Rebel Alliance had taken dozens of solar systems from the Galactic Empire and established the Second Republic, which was considered a continuation of the Galactic Republic.

The Second Republic was governed by a Legislative Council with it's members selected by local governments, and an Executive Council elected by the Legislative Council. The old military forces of the old Rebel Alliance became the armed forces of the New Republic. In 19 ABY, the capital of the Second Republic was established on the planet Byzantium Secundus.

The new Republic's government was largely led by human nobles that originally broke with the houses of the Hawkwoods and the Hazat.

Meanwhile, the Second Republic continued in armed conflict with the Galactic Empire under Thrawn.

Humans are the largest race within the new Republic and the Universal Church of the Celestial Sun is the most popular religion within Republic space, although bishops and archbishops within the Second Republic are largely independent of the Church Patriarch on Coruscant.

There are four main political parties within the Second Republic: the Free Republic Party (nationalist, pro-military, pro-centralized government, and anti-Imperial), the Pragmatic Party (less nationalistic and pro-military than the Free Republic Party it tends to be pro-centralized government and pro-business, including having ties to corporations within both the Merchant League and the Trade Federation), the Neo-Libertarian Party (anti-centralized government and favoring local autonomy for planetary and solar-system governments), and the Pro-Imperial Party (favoring political reunification with the Galactic Empire, though the pro-Imperial Party was only founded in 31 ABY after the treaty between Emperor Thrawn II and the Second Republic).

The Second Republic government used the term First Republic to refer to the original Galactic Republic until it's transformation into the Galactic Empire under Palpatine.

Watch the video: 75 Jahre Zweite Republik - Ein Rückblick auf die Zeitgeschichte unseres Landes (June 2022).