Day 133 June 1, 2011 - History

Day 133 June 1, 2011 - History

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Day 133 June 1, 2011

Vice President Joe Biden is escorted by General Mosca Moschini as he arrives at Quirinale Palace in Rome, Italy, to meet with Italian President Giorgio Napolitano, June 1, 2011


10:00AM THE PRESIDENT meets with the House Republican Conference
East Room

11:30AM THE PRESIDENT receives the annual briefing on the forecast for the 2011 hurricane season
Situation Room

2:15PM THE PRESIDENT meets with senior advisors
Oval Office

4:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with Secretary of State Clinton
Oval Office

SEC Adopts Dodd-Frank Act Amendments to Investment Advisers Act

Washington, D.C., June 22, 2011 – The Securities and Exchange Commission today adopted rules that require advisers to hedge funds and other private funds to register with the SEC, establish new exemptions from SEC registration and reporting requirements for certain advisers, and reallocate regulatory responsibility for advisers between the SEC and states.

The rules adopted by the Commission implement core provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act regarding investment advisers, including those that advise hedge funds.

“These rules will fill a key gap in the regulatory landscape,” said SEC Chairman Mary L. Schapiro. “In particular, our proposal will give the Commission, and the public, insight into hedge fund and other private fund managers who previously conducted their work under the radar and outside the vision of regulators.”

In addition, the Commission amended rules to expand disclosure by investment advisers, particularly about the private funds they manage, and revised the Commission’s pay-to-play rule.

The rules implement a transitional exemption period so that private advisers, including hedge fund and private equity fund advisers, newly required to register do not have to do so until March 30, 2012. The rules regarding exemptions for venture capital fund and certain private fund advisers are effective July 21, 2011.

Consumer Price Index, 2000 to Present

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is an indicator of changes in consumer prices experienced by Canadians. It is obtained by comparing, over time, the cost of a fixed basket of goods and services purchased by consumers.

The CPI is widely used as an indicator of the change in the general level of consumer prices or the rate of inflation. Since the purchasing power of money is affected by changes in prices, the CPI is useful to virtually all Canadians.

Core inflation measures

The prices of certain CPI components can be particularly volatile. These components, as well as changes in indirect taxes such as GST, can cause sizeable fluctuations in total CPI. In setting monetary policy, the Bank seeks to look through such transitory movements in total CPI inflation and focusses on “core” inflation measures that better reflect the underlying trend of inflation.


CPI-trim is a measure of core inflation that excludes CPI components whose rates of change in a given month are located in the tails of the distribution of price changes. This measure helps filter out extreme price movements that might be caused by factors specific to certain components. In particular, CPI-trim excludes 20 per cent of the weighted monthly price variations at both the bottom and top of the distribution of price changes, and thus it always removes 40 per cent of the total CPI basket. These excluded components can change from month to month, depending on which are extreme at a given time. A good example would be the impact of severe weather on the prices of certain food components. This approach differs from traditional a priori exclusion-based measures (e.g. CPIX), which every month omit a pre-specified list of components from the CPI basket.


CPI-median is a measure of core inflation corresponding to the price change located at the 50th percentile (in terms of the CPI basket weights) of the distribution of price changes in a given month. This measure helps filter out extreme price movements specific to certain components. This approach is similar to CPI-trim as it eliminates all the weighted monthly price variations at both the bottom and top of the distribution of price changes in any given month, except the price change for the component that is the midpoint of that distribution.


CPI-common is a measure of core inflation that tracks common price changes across categories in the CPI basket. It uses a statistical procedure called a factor model to detect these common variations, which helps filter out price movements that might be caused by factors specific to certain components.

The CPI excluding eight of the most volatile components (fruit, vegetables, gasoline, fuel oil, natural gas, mortgage interest, inter-city transportation and tobacco products) as well as the effect of changes in indirect taxes on the remaining components.


The CPI excluding food, energy and the effect of changes in indirect taxes.

CPIW adjusts each CPI basket weight by a factor that is inversely proportional to the component's variability and is adjusted to exclude the effect of changes in indirect taxes.

Timeline: Notable dates in Canada’s history

A look at some notable dates in the history of Canada, which marks its 147th birthday July 1.

June 24, 1497 – John Cabot claims a new continent in the name of King Henry VII of England after landing near Labrador.

June 30, 1508 – A detailed map of the New World published in Rome lists for the first time Terra Nova – Newfoundland.

June 11, 1534 – French explorers under Jacques Cartier celebrate Canada’s first Roman Catholic mass, at their camp of Brest on Labrador’s coast.

June 29, 1534 – Cartier sights Prince Edward Island and calls it the “best tempered region one can possibly see.”

Aug. 13, 1535 – Cartier becomes the first European to sail into the St. Lawrence River, which he believes is a route to Asia. Two sons of Iroquois Chief Donnacona, who are guiding Cartier, refer to their native village as Canada, the explorer’s first exposure to the name.

1600 – Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit and Francois Grave du Pont build Canada’s first fortified trading post, at Tadoussac in what is now Quebec.

1606 – Jean de Beincourt, Sieur de Poutrincourt, builds North America’s first water-powered mill, on the Allains River in Acadia, after seeing six men die of exhaustion from grinding grain by hand.

July 3, 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founds the settlement of Quebec.

July 30, 1609 – Champlain helps Huron and Algonquins defeat a much larger force of Iroquois, exposing them to firearms for the first time.

June 24, 1611 – English explorer Henry Hudson and his crew are set adrift by other mutinous crew members in the massive bay that now bears Hudson’s name.

June 3, 1620 – The Recollet missionaries lay the cornerstone for Notre Dame des Agnes, the first stone church in Quebec.

June 25, 1625 – Father Nicholas Viel, missionary to the Hurons of Ontario, becomes Canada’s first martyr when he is deliberately drowned in the Ottawa River.

March 16, 1649 – More than 1,000 Iroquois overrun the Huron missions of New France, torturing to death the missionaries who established them.

Aug. 6, 1654 – Fur traders Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medart Chouart des Groseilliers begin their first westward journey.

July 21, 1660 – Canada’s first census puts the population at 3,418.

Feb. 24, 1663 – New France becomes a royal colony of the French crown.

July 7, 1667 – Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy concludes the first genuine French-Iroquois peace treaty in more than five decades of hostilities.

May 2, 1670 – King Charles II of England signs the charter incorporating the Hudson’s Bay trading company.

Aug. 7, 1679 – After being granted permission to explore western North America, Sieur de La Salle launches the Griffon, the first ship to navigate the Great Lakes.

Nov. 19, 1686 – France and England sign the Treaty of Neutrality providing for peace between respective possessions in America and settling the dispute over activities in Hudson Bay.

May 17, 1689 – King William’s War is declared between England and France, which pits New France against New England colonies and their Iroquois allies.

July 19, 1701 – The Iroquois cede territory to England north of Lake Ontario and west of Lake Michigan.

Aug. 4, 1701 – The Iroquois Five Nations sign a peace treaty with New France at Ville-Marie, Que.

April 11, 1713 – Under the Treaty of Utrecht, France recognizes British sovereignty over Hudson Bay, Acadia and Newfoundland. France retains possession of St. Pierre and Miquelon, Ile Royale (Cape Breton) and Ile Saint-Jean (P.E.I.).

Aug. 12, 1728 – Danish sailor Vitus Johassen Bering sails through the strait that now bears his name in an expedition that would prove that Asia and North America are some 60 kilometres apart.

June 8, 1731 – De la Verendrye leaves Montreal with an expedition to establish new trading areas in the west.

1739 – A census of Canada records a population of 42,701.

July 9, 1749 – Edward Cornwallis, governor of Nova Scotia, announces the establishment of Halifax.

April 17, 1750 – A fortified outpost is built on the present site of Toronto. Fort Rouille is intended to encourage Indians to trade furs with the French.

March 23, 1752 – Canada’s first newspaper, the Halifax Gazette, is printed by John Bushell.

1754 – Louis La Corne plants the first wheat in the west, in the Carrot River Valley of present-day Saskatchewan.

Sept. 5, 1755 – Lt.-Col. John Winslow says Acadians who refuse to pledge allegiance to the British Crown will forfeit their property and be relocated from their communities to Louisiana and British American colonies.

May 17, 1756 – The Seven Years’ War begins with Britain declaring war on France. It starts in North America and spreads to Europe.

Sept. 13, 1759 – British Commander-in-Chief James Wolfe dies on the field after being shot three times during the battle of the Plains of Abraham. French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, mortally wounded, succumbs the next day.

Feb. 10, 1763 – The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years’ War, with Britain taking possession of Canada.

June 22, 1774 – The British Parliament passes the Quebec Act, establishing among other things French civil law, British-based criminal law and religious freedom for Roman Catholics.

April 1, 1776 – The first of thousands of United Empire Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution arrive in Halifax.

March 29, 1778 – James Cook, George Vancouver and their crews become the first Europeans known to have landed at British Columbia.

April 24, 1779 – The North West Company is formed in Montreal to compete with the Hudson’s Bay Company in the fur trade.

June 10, 1791 – Britain’s Canada Act divides the new country into Upper Canada, with its capital at Newark (later Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.), and Lower Canada, with Quebec City as its capital.

Oct. 13, 1812 – Gen. Isaac Brock is killed in a counterattack against American forces in the Battle of Queenston Heights, near Niagara Falls.

June 22, 1813 – A Queenston (Ont.) woman, Laura Secord, aided by Indians, treks more than 19 kilometres to warn British forces of plans she overheard of an American attack.

Dec. 24, 1814 – The Treaty of Ghent is signed, ending the War of 1812 and restoring Canada-U.S. borders.

March 21, 1821 – The Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company merge after decades of often-fierce rivalry.

1825 – The latest census puts the population of Lower Canada (Quebec) at 479,288, and Upper Canada (Ontario) at 157,923.

March 6, 1834 – York reverts to its original name, Toronto, and is incorporated as a city.

Feb. 4, 1839 – Lord Durham, former governor-in-chief of British North America, recommends in a report to the British Parliament the systematic anglicization of French Canadians to make them a minority.

Oct. 14, 1844 – John A. Macdonald is elected to represent Kingston, Ont., in the Legislative Assembly of Canada.

April 23, 1851 – Canada’s first official postage stamp, the three-penny beaver, is issued.

Dec. 31, 1857 – Queen Victoria names Ottawa as the new capital of Canada.

Sept. 7, 1864 – Maritime delegates at the Charlottetown Conference offer unanimous support for the idea of Confederation. The conference was supposed to focus on uniting the Maritime provinces, but an unofficial delegation from the province of Canada derailed the agenda and delegates agreed to the broad outline of a federal union that would eventually include Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1867.

July 1, 1867 – The Dominion of Canada, uniting Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, comes into existence, with John A. Macdonald as first prime minister.

May 15, 1870 – Manitoba becomes Canada’s fifth province.

April 2, 1871 – The first census of the Dominion of Canada lists the population as 3,689,257.

July 20, 1871 – British Columbia enters Confederation as the nation’s sixth province.

July 1, 1873 – Prince Edward Island enters Confederation.

Aug. 3, 1876 – The first telephone call between separate buildings is made by inventor Alexander Graham Bell, in Mount Pleasant, Ont., to his uncle, David Bell, in Brantford, Ont.

Feb. 8, 1879 – Sir Sandford Fleming presents a paper to the Royal Canadian Institute proposing that the world be divided into 24 time zones.

Nov. 7, 1885 – Rail director Donald Smith drives the ceremonial last spike home for the Canadian Pacific Railway, linking Montreal to Port Moody, B.C.

Nov. 16, 1885 – Metis leader Louis Riel is hanged for high treason as a result of the North West Rebellion.

Oct. 30, 1899 – More than 1,000 Canadian soldiers set sail from Quebec to South Africa and the Boer War.

Nov. 7, 1900 – Liberal Wilfrid Laurier becomes prime minister after defeating Charles Tupper’s Conservatives. Laurier goes on to be one of Canada’s most lauded prime ministers.

Oct. 19, 1903 – Canadian representatives on the Alaska Boundary Commission refuse to sign the commission’s decision setting the boundary between Alaska and Canada, saying virtually all American positions had been accepted.

May 14, 1904 – Canada competes in the Olympics, in St. Louis, for the first time.

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July 20, 1905 – Acts proclaiming Alberta and Saskatchewan as Canada’s newest provinces receive royal assent.

Jan. 2, 1908 – The first coin is struck at the new Royal Mint building in Ottawa, ending years of importing Canadian currency from England.

Feb. 23, 1909 – John Alexander Douglas McCurdy makes the first airplane flight in the British Empire, travelling about 10 metres above the ground for almost a kilometre at Baddeck, N.S.

Dec. 4, 1909 – The University of Toronto defeats the Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club 26-6 in the first Grey Cup game for a Canadian football championship.

May 14. 1912 – Ottawa divests itself of responsibility for vast tracts of northern land, granting boundary extensions to Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.

Aug. 4. 1914 – Following Germany’s invasion of Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany. Canada, as part of the British Empire, is engaged in the war as well.

Feb. 4. 1916 – Fire partially destroys the Parliament buildings in Ottawa.

April 9, 1917 – The Canadian Corps attacks German positions on Vimy Ridge in France, a key piece of land held by the Germans since 1914. Six days later, fighting ends with the Canadians victorious despite the loss of 3,600 troops.

Dec. 6, 1917 – Mont Blanc, a French munitions ship, explodes in Halifax Harbour, killing more than 1,000 people and destroying some 6,000 homes.

May 24, 1918 – Canadian women win the right to vote in federal elections.

Nov. 11, 1918 – The First World War ends Canada has lost 60,000 troops.

May 15, 1919 – A general strike begins in Winnipeg in support of striking workers in building and metal trades. It ends six weeks later, after two deaths in skirmishes.

Feb. 1, 1920 – The Royal North West Mounted Police and Dominion Police merge to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Oct. 24, 1921 – The Lunenburg fishing schooner Bluenose defeats the American vessel Elsie to win the international schooner championship.

Dec. 6, 1921 – Agnes Macphail becomes the first woman elected to Parliament.

Jan. 3, 1922 – The Royal Mint produces Canada’s first five-cent pieces, made mostly of nickel.

Oct. 25, 1923 – Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod are first Canadians to win a Nobel prize, for their work that led to discovery of insulin.

Nov. 19, 1926 – The Commonwealth adopts the Balfour Report, specifying that dominions such as Canada are autonomous from and equal to Britain.

March 2, 1927 – The British dominion of Newfoundland wins a 25-year boundary dispute with Canada. Labrador, which had been claimed by Quebec, is awarded to Newfoundland.

April 24, 1928 – The Supreme Court rules that women are not persons, and therefore are not eligible to sit in Senate. The government later amends the British North America Act to allow women to enter Senate.

Feb. 5, 1930 – Canada’s first woman senator, Cairine Wilson, is appointed.

Oct. 1, 1930 – After negotiations with Ottawa, Alberta gains control of its natural resources. Saskatchewan and Manitoba also receive the same power that same year.

July 6, 1931 – Federal officials and the Red Cross announce plans to aid victims of a drought that has gripped the Prairies for more than a year.

Dec. 11, 1931 – The Statute of Westminster, giving dominions of the Commonwealth full legal freedom, is passed by British Parliament. At Canada’s request, Britain retains power to amend the British North America Act.

May 24, 1932 – Legislation brings the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission into existence.

July 18, 1932 – Canada and the United States agree to develop the St. Lawrence River into a seaway capable of taking ships into the Great Lakes.

July 3, 1934 – Parliament passes the Bank of Canada Act, creating a central bank.

Sept. 10, 1939 – Canada declares war on Nazi Germany.

June 27, 1941 – The federal government allows women to enlist in the army.

Dec. 7, 1941 – Canada declares war on Japan after its attack on Pearl Harbor.

Feb. 26, 1942 – The Canadian government announces plans to move all Japanese on Canada’s West Coast inland to camps.

April 27, 1942 – Canadians voting in a plebiscite support conscription, but the vote badly divides the country: 70 per cent of Quebecers reject it.

May 11, 1942 – A German U-boat in the St. Lawrence River torpedoes two freighters, the first time the war has come to Canadian territory.

Aug. 19, 1942 – Canadian troops sustain major losses in a raid on the French port of Dieppe. Nearly 1,000 Canadians die and another 1,800 are taken prisoner.

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June 6, 1944 – Allied troops storm the beaches at Normandy – Canadians take Juno Beach – in the largest amphibious operation in history.

June 15, 1944 – T.C. (Tommy) Douglas leads the CCF to power in Saskatchewan, becoming Canada’s first socialist premier.

May 7, 1945 – Victory comes for the Allies in Europe as the Germans surrender. News of V-E Day touches off wild celebrations in Canada.

Aug. 15, 1945 – The Japanese emperor announces Japan’s surrender, ending the Second World War.

May 14, 1946 – The Canadian Citizenship Act is passed, meaning a Canadian citizen is no longer classified as British subject first.

Oct. 14, 1946 – The government introduces Canada Savings Bonds.

Feb. 13, 1947 – Drilling begins at Leduc No. 1, a huge oil find in north-central Alberta.

March 31, 1949 – Newfoundland officially enters Confederation.

Dec. 18, 1950 – The 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry, begins disembarking in Pusan as Canada enters the war between North and South Korea.

May 7, 1951 – Parliament passes a motion seeking a constitutional amendment that would create pensions for all Canadians over 70.

Sept. 6, 1952 – Canada’s first television station, CBFT Montreal, begins broadcasting.

June 6, 1956 – A pipeline bill authorizing the creation of a western section of pipeline to transport natural gas to Ontario from Alberta passes second reading in the Senate. The bill has caused an uproar after the Liberal government invoked closure – a time limit on debate – for the first time in history.

June 26, 1959 – Queen Elizabeth, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower officially open the St. Lawrence Seaway.

Aug. 10, 1960 – The Bill of Rights, specifying the rights of Canadians, becomes law.

Jan. 19, 1962 – The government announces a new immigration policy intended to remove any racial discrimination from the system.

July 1, 1962 – Saskatchewan’s Medical Care Insurance Act takes effect, creating Canada’s first comprehensive public health-care program.

March 26, 1964 – Defence Minister Paul Hellyer releases a report that recommends merging Canada’s army, navy and air force into a single force.

Dec. 15, 1964 – A new Canadian flag – red maple leaf on white background between two red bars- wins the approval of Parliament.

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April 28, 1967 – Expo 67, a world’s fair built on the theme Man and His World, opens in Montreal.

July 1, 1967 – Canada celebrates its centennial with parties and building projects across the country. The government institutes the Order of Canada to recognize exemplary achievement by Canadians.

Oct. 17, 1968 – Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau introduces the Official Languages Act, making English and French the country’s two official languages.

Oct. 5, 1970 – The October Crisis begins as the Front de Liberation du Quebec kidnaps British diplomat James Cross and, later, Labour Minister Pierre Laporte. Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act, which allows government to temporarily suspend civil liberties. Cross is released 60 days later but Laporte is found dead.

Sept. 28, 1972 – Team Canada, on Paul Henderson’s goal with 34 seconds remaining in final game, defeats the Soviet Union four games to three, with one tied.

June 22, 1976 – The House of Commons approves, by just eight votes, a bill abolishing the death penalty.

July 17, 1976 – Montreal hosts the Summer Olympics.

Nov. 15, 1976 – Rene Levesque’s separatist Parti Quebecois wins a stunning election victory in Quebec.

July 14, 1978 – The federal government agrees to pay $45 million to 2,500 Inuit of the Western Arctic in return for Inuit surrendering aboriginal rights to 270,000 square kilometres of land they traditionally used.

May 27, 1980 – By a 60-40 margin, Quebecers vote against sovereignty association in a referendum.

Sept. 1, 1980 – Terry Fox’s Marathon of Hope, his one-legged run across Canada to raise money for cancer research, ends abruptly near Thunder Bay, Ont., when his cancer returns.

Nov. 5, 1981 – Ottawa and all provinces but Quebec reach agreement to patriate the Constitution.

April 17, 1982 – With the stroke of a pen by the Queen in Ottawa, Canada has its own Constitution.

Oct. 26, 1982 – Legislation changes the name of the annual Dominion Day holiday to Canada Day.

March 4, 1986 – The federal government announces it will outlaw mandatory retirement for civil servants and discrimination against homosexuals.

May 2, 1986 – Expo 86, a world’s fair on the theme of transport, opens in Vancouver.

June 30, 1987 – The $1 coin, which quickly earns the nickname “loonie,” is introduced.

Jan. 2, 1988 – The Canada-U.S. free trade agreement is signed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and President Ronald Reagan.

Jan. 28, 1988 – The Supreme Court overturns the law that required a panel at an accredited hospital to determine if a woman’s life or health was endangered before allowing her to have an abortion. The decision paves way for abortion on demand.

Feb. 13, 1988 – The Winter Olympics open in Calgary.

Jan. 14, 1990 – The Via passenger train The Canadian makes its final crosscountry trip after the federal government orders the railway to cut service.

Jan. 1, 1991 – After months of protest, the GST takes effect. The federal tax adds seven per cent to the cost of many goods and services.

Jan. 19, 1991 – Canadian CF-18 jet fighters fly an offensive mission in the Persian Gulf war, marking the first time Canadian forces have engaged in battle since the Korean War.

July 2, 1992 – With cod stocks dwindling, Fisheries Minister John Crosbie announces a two-year shutdown for Newfoundland’s northern cod fishery.

Jan. 1, 1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement between the U.S., Canada and Mexico takes effect.

Oct. 30, 1995 – Quebecers narrowly reject separation, with 50.6 per cent voting “no.”

Feb. 19, 1996 – Canada’s new $2 coin, dubbed the “toonie,” is introduced.

May 1, 1996 – The Commons approves changes to the Canadian Human Rights Act to prohibit discrimination against gays.

May 31, 1997 – The Confederation Bridge opens, linking Prince Edward Island to the mainland.

Aug. 4, 1998 – A treaty gives the Nisga’a First Nation ownership of 2,000 square kilometres in northern British Columbia. Some critics complain the deal paves the way for aboriginal self-government.

April 1, 1999 – Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut, is carved out of the eastern Northwest Territories.

Jan. 12, 2000 – Beverly McLachlin becomes the first female chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada.

Oct. 7, 2001: Prime Minister Jean Chretien announces Canada’s participation in an international anti-terrorism mission in Afghanistan

April 18, 2002 – Four soldiers, part of Canada’s contribution to the war on terrorism after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, are killed when a U.S. fighter jet mistakenly bombs them in Afghanistan. They are the first soldiers killed in a combat zone since the Korean War.

Dec. 16, 2002 – Canada signs Kyoto Accord, committing it to lower greenhouse gas emissions.

July 20, 2005 – Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Canada.

Mar. 13, 2007 – Census data collected the year before puts Canada’s population at 31,612,897.

Jun. 11, 2008 – Prime Minister Stephen Harper issues a formal apology for the abuse suffered by aboriginals in the residential school system.

Dec. 5, 2008 – Canada marks the 100th military death as a result of its ongoing mission in Afghanistan.

Feb. 12, 2010 – The Winter Olympic Games begin in Vancouver. Freestyle moguls skier Alexandre Bilodeau becomes the first-ever athlete to claim a gold medal on Canadian soil. Canada goes on to win 14 gold medals – an all-time high for a host country in a Winter Olympics.

March 12, 2014: The Canadian flag is lowered at the NATO headquarters in Kabul, marking the formal end to Canada’s operations in Afghanistan.

SOURCES: Canadian Press archives, Chronicle of Canada (1990, Chronicle Publications), Canadian Facts & Dates, Jay Myers (1986, Fitzhenry & Whiteside)

Day 133 June 1, 2011 - History

Overall there are 47 volcanoes with continuing eruptions as of the Stop Dates indicated, and as reported through the last data update (6 May 2021), sorted with the most recently started eruption at the top. Information about more recently started eruptions can be found in the Weekly Report.

Although detailed statistics are not kept on daily activity, generally there are around 20 volcanoes actively erupting on any particular day. The Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report (WVAR) for the week ending on 15 June 2021 includes the 21 volcanoes shown below marked "Yes" in the WVAR column (rollover for report).

An eruption marked as "continuing" does not always mean that the activity is continuous or happening today, but that there have been at least some intermittent eruptive events at that volcano without a break of at least 3 months since it started. An eruption listed here also might have ended since the last public data update, or at the update time a firm end date had not yet been determined due to potential renewed activity.

Volcano Country Eruption Start Date Eruption Stop Date Max VEI WVAR
Piton de la Fournaise France 2021 Apr 9 2021 May 6 (continuing) &ndash
Karymsky Russia 2021 Apr 3 2021 May 6 (continuing) &ndash Yes
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland 2021 Mar 19 2021 May 6 (continuing) &ndash Yes
Semisopochnoi United States 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days 2021 May 6 (continuing) &ndash Yes
Raung Indonesia 2021 Jan 21 2021 May 6 (continuing) &ndash
Merapi Indonesia 2020 Dec 31 2021 May 6 (continuing) 1 Yes
Soufriere St. Vincent Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2020 Dec 27 2021 May 6 (continuing) 4 Yes
Kilauea United States 2020 Dec 20 2021 May 6 (continuing) 0
Lewotolok Indonesia 2020 Nov 27 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Kavachi Solomon Islands 2020 Sep 2 2021 Apr 10 (continuing) 0
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3 Yes
Sarychev Peak Russia 2020 Feb 29 ± 1 days 2021 May 5 (continuing) 1
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Tinakula Solomon Islands 2018 Dec 8 (in or before) 2021 Apr 26 (continuing) 2
Karangetang Indonesia 2018 Nov 25 2021 Apr 23 (continuing) 2
Barren Island India 2018 Sep 25 2021 May 4 (continuing) 1
Nyamulagira DR Congo 2018 Apr 18 2021 May 6 (continuing) 0
Kadovar Papua New Guinea 2018 Jan 5 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania 2017 Apr 9 2021 May 6 (continuing) 0
Aira Japan 2017 Mar 25 2021 May 6 (continuing) 1 Yes
Sabancaya Peru 2016 Nov 6 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3
Ebeko Russia 2016 Oct 20 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Nevados de Chillan Chile 2016 Jan 8 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Langila Papua New Guinea 2015 Oct 22 (?) 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Masaya Nicaragua 2015 Oct 3 2021 Apr 28 (continuing) 1
Tofua Tonga 2015 Oct 2 2021 Apr 22 (continuing) 0
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days 2021 May 6 (continuing) 1
Villarrica Chile 2014 Dec 2 ± 7 days 2021 May 5 (continuing) 1
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia 2014 Nov 18 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Saunders United Kingdom 2014 Nov 12 2021 Apr 20 (continuing) 1
Manam Papua New Guinea 2014 Jun 29 2021 May 4 (continuing) 2
Semeru Indonesia 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3
Etna Italy 2013 Sep 3 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Bezymianny Russia 2010 May 21 (?) 2021 Mar 8 (continuing) 3
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Ibu Indonesia 2008 Apr 5 2021 May 6 (continuing) 1 Yes
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Suwanosejima Japan 2004 Oct 23 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Nyiragongo DR Congo 2002 May 17 (?) 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Fuego Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3
Bagana Papua New Guinea 2000 Feb 28 (in or before) 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2 Yes
Sheveluch Russia 1999 Aug 15 2021 May 6 (continuing) 4 Yes
Erebus Antarctica 1972 Dec 16 (in or before) ± 15 days 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Stromboli Italy 1934 Feb 2 2021 May 6 (continuing) 2
Dukono Indonesia 1933 Aug 13 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3 Yes
Santa Maria Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3
Yasur Vanuatu 1774 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days 2021 May 6 (continuing) 3

Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 9-15 June. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached the highest levels ever detected at the volcano, averaging 9,911 tonnes/day on 10 June. Peak measurements coincided with periods of vigorous upwelling at the Main Crater Lake the upwelling was continuous from 1800 on 9 June to 1000 on 10 June, producing steam plumes that rose 1.5 km and drifted mainly NW. Residents of barangays Banyaga, Bilibinwang, and Subic Ilaya (Municipality of Agoncillo, Batangas Province) reported throat irritations and observed sudden drying or die off of crops, plants, and trees after a period of rain. Averages on the other days were also elevated at 1,725-5,837 tonnes/day, and steam plumes from periods of lake upwelling rose 1-1.5 km and drifted NE, NW, and SW.

Low-level background tremor that had begun at 0905 on 8 April continued. During 13-14 June the seismic network recorded 13 periods of volcanic tremor with durations from 1 to 270 minutes. During 14-15 June the network recorded 221 volcanic earthquakes, 29 low-frequency earthquakes, and 192 periods of volcanic tremor with durations from 1 to 135 minutes. PHIVOLCS noted the continuing state of elevated unrest, reminding the public that the Alert Level for Taal remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater, Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail), and boating on Taal Lake was strictly prohibited.

US Dollar(USD) To Philippine Peso(PHP) History

US Dollar(USD) To Philippine Peso(PHP) Currency Exchange History

Welcome to the page of currency pairs exchange rate history graph, US Dollar(USD) To Philippine Peso(PHP) Currency. By viewing the currency pairs exchange rate history graph (different periods for selecting), you can get more previous performance about the two currencies. Do you want to INVERT the two currencies? Visit Philippine Peso(PHP) to US Dollar(USD).

Today ( Wednesday 23/06/2021)

48.808 Philippine Peso (PHP)

Exchange Rates Updated: 23/Jun/21 00:19 UTC

US Dollar(USD) To Philippine Peso(PHP) History Graph

History Monday 14/06/2021 - Wednesday 23/06/2021

Date US Dollar Philippine Peso History
Tuesday 22/06/2021 1 USD = 48.6845 PHP USD PHP rate 22/06/2021
Monday 21/06/2021 1 USD = 48.7338 PHP USD PHP rate 21/06/2021
Sunday 20/06/2021 1 USD = 48.526 PHP USD PHP rate 20/06/2021
Saturday 19/06/2021 1 USD = 48.5008 PHP USD PHP rate 19/06/2021
Friday 18/06/2021 1 USD = 48.5008 PHP USD PHP rate 18/06/2021
Thursday 17/06/2021 1 USD = 48.3842 PHP USD PHP rate 17/06/2021
Wednesday 16/06/2021 1 USD = 48.0718 PHP USD PHP rate 16/06/2021
Tuesday 15/06/2021 1 USD = 48.0589 PHP USD PHP rate 15/06/2021
Monday 14/06/2021 1 USD = 47.8962 PHP USD PHP rate 14/06/2021
Sunday 13/06/2021 1 USD = 47.784 PHP USD PHP rate 13/06/2021
Saturday 12/06/2021 1 USD = 47.7804 PHP USD PHP rate 12/06/2021
Friday 11/06/2021 1 USD = 47.7762 PHP USD PHP rate 11/06/2021
Thursday 10/06/2021 1 USD = 47.7576 PHP USD PHP rate 10/06/2021
Wednesday 09/06/2021 1 USD = 47.778 PHP USD PHP rate 09/06/2021
Tuesday 08/06/2021 1 USD = 47.8899 PHP USD PHP rate 08/06/2021
Monday 07/06/2021 1 USD = 47.775 PHP USD PHP rate 07/06/2021
Sunday 06/06/2021 1 USD = 47.653 PHP USD PHP rate 06/06/2021
Saturday 05/06/2021 1 USD = 47.6914 PHP USD PHP rate 05/06/2021
Friday 04/06/2021 1 USD = 47.6914 PHP USD PHP rate 04/06/2021
Thursday 03/06/2021 1 USD = 47.903 PHP USD PHP rate 03/06/2021
Wednesday 02/06/2021 1 USD = 47.8897 PHP USD PHP rate 02/06/2021
Tuesday 01/06/2021 1 USD = 47.726 PHP USD PHP rate 01/06/2021

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June 2021 guide to the bright planets

In late May and early June 2021, watch for the waning moon to pass to the south of the giant gas planets, Saturn and Jupiter. It’ll pass them again during the last week of June. Read more. The young waxing crescent moon sweeps to the north the blazing planet Venus and then the much fainter red planet Mars, before and during mid-June. Read more. During the last week of June 2021, watch for the moon to again sweep by the gas giants Saturn and Jupiter. Read more.

‘Ring of fire’ solar eclipse June 10

Venus and Mars

The brightest planet Venus and red planet Mars remain fixtures of the early evening sky throughout June 2021. Although Mars looms higher up in the western sky after sunset – and stays out longer after dark – than Venus does, Mars will be the harder planet to spot. After all, Venus – the brightest of all planets – outshines Mars by more than a hundredfold.

Your best bet is to first spot dazzling Venus, as it pops out at dusk, way before any other bright star. You’ll likely find Venus blazing away quite low in your western sky some 40 to 45 minutes (or sooner) after sunset. Use this bright beacon to find your way to Mars, which comes out as evening twilight gives way to nightfall. Early in the month, you might not see Mars until after Venus sets. To find out Venus’ setting time, go to TimeandDate or Old Farmer’s Almanac.

Mars is fairly easy to see in a dark sky. But it’s best to seek out modestly-bright Mars at early evening, when it’s still relatively high above your western horizon. We give you fair warning! The red planet is only going to get fainter as this year progresses. In the months ahead, Mars will surely dim as – day by day – it lags farther behind Earth in the great race of the planets, and sinks closer to the setting sun.

At mid-northern latitudes, Mars sets about one hour after nightfall (end of astronomical twilight) in early June, and around nightfall by the month’s end.

At temperate latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, Mars sets about 1 1/2 hours (90 minutes) after nightfall in early June, and about one hour after nightfall by the month’s end.

Find out both the sunset time and the time of nightfall (end of astronomical twilight) via

While Mars is sinking toward the setting sun by the day, Venus is climbing upward, away from the sunset. Next month, these two worlds will meet up for a close-knit conjunction on July 13, 2021. After that, Venus will supplant Mars as the higher evening planet.

Mars, though nominally an evening planet until October 2021, will likely be out of sight and out of mind by August 2021. By that time, expect Mars to succumb to the glow of evening twilight.

On the other hand, Venus boldly shines in the evening sky for the rest of this year, to reach its greatest elongation from the sun on October 29, 2021 (see diagram below), and to attain its greatest brilliance as the evening “star” around the time of the new moon on December 4, 2021. Circle this date on your calendar, and see if it’s true that Venus can cast a shadow on a dark night!

In this view, Venus and all the planets travel counterclockwise around the sun. Venus, being an inferior planet, shows phases just like the moon. It has swept to the far side of the sun (at superior conjunction) on March 26, 2021, to exit the morning sky and to enter the evening sky. Venus will reach its greatest eastern (evening) elongation from the sun (half Venus) on October 29, 2021. Then on January 9, 2022, Venus will go between the Earth and sun, at inferior conjunction, to exit the evening sky and to enter the morning sky. Image via UCLA.

Jupiter and Saturn

You can find giant planet Jupiter and ringed Saturn in June 2021 late at night and in the hours before sunrise. If you’re a night owl, you might catch these two planets low in your southeast sky before bedtime. The early bird still has the advantage, though, as these two worlds appear much higher up in the sky during the predawn hours.

Saturn rises first. At mid-northern latitudes, Saturn comes up around local midnight at the beginning of the month, and around mid-evening by the month’s end. (By midnight, we mean midway between sunset and sunrise.) Jupiter follows Saturn into the sky about an hour later.

At temperate latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, Saturn rises around mid-to-late evening in early June, and by the month’s end, comes up at early-to-mid evening evening. Jupiter follows Saturn into the sky around 1 1/2 hours later.

For more specific information on when Jupiter and Saturn rise into your sky, consult either The Old Farmer’s Almanac (U.S. and Canada) or (worldwide).

Use the moon to help guide you to Jupiter and Saturn in late May and early June 2021, and then again late in the month, from about June 27 to 29.


Mercury – the innermost planet – isn’t easily visible in June 2021. This planet is low in the west after sunset when the month begins. It’ll exit the evening sky and enter the morning sky when it passes between the Earth and sun (at inferior conjunction) on June 11, 2021. Alert sky watchers have a chance to catch Mercury in the morning sky – in the east before sunrise – by the last week of June. By early July, Mercury will appear more easily visible in the east before the sun. The waning moon will point to it, and pass near it, on July 5, 6, 7 and 8. Read more about Mercury in early July.

Not to scale. Mercury’s mean distance from the sun is about 0.39 times Earth’s distance from the sun. We’re looking down from the north side of the solar system plane. In this view, Mercury and Earth circle the sun in a counterclockwise direction. Earth and Mercury also rotate on their axes counterclockwise as seen from the north side of the solar system. At its greatest eastern elongation, Mercury is seen in the west after sunset and at its greatest western elongation, Mercury is seen in the east before sunrise.

What do we mean by bright planet?

By bright planet, we mean any solar system planet that is easily visible without an optical aid and that has been watched by our ancestors since time immemorial. In their outward order from the sun, the five bright planets are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. These planets actually do appear bright in our sky. They are typically as bright as – or brighter than – the brightest stars. Plus, these relatively nearby worlds tend to shine with a steadier light than the distant, twinkling stars. You can spot them, and come to know them as faithful friends, if you try.

Bottom line: All you need to know about how to find the bright planets of the solar system during the month of June.

    • Monthly average crude oil prices rose in all sales categories for the fifth month in a row in March. The average domestic crude oil first purchase price climbed $3.95 (7.0%) to $60.67 per barrel.
    • The average free-on-board (f.o.b.) cost of imported crude oil increased $3.75 (7.1%) to $56.75 per barrel. The average landed cost of foreign crude oil rose $3.33 (6.0%) to $58.40 per barrel.
    • The average refiner acquisition cost for domestic crude oil rose $3.17 (5.3%) to $63.31 per barrel. The average cost of imported crude oil increased $4.01 (7.2%) to $59.68 per barrel. The composite refiner acquisition cost for crude oil increased $3.57 (6.1%) to $61.96 per barrel.
    Motor gasoline

    • Refiner monthly average prices for sales of motor gasoline moved upward again in March. The average retail price rose 24.1 cents to $2.442 per gallon, while the average wholesale price increased 22.7 cents to $2.011 per gallon.
    • Sales of finished motor gasoline by refiners grew in March. Total sales rose 22.4 million gallons per day (8.3%) to an average of 291.9 million gallons per day. Retail sales increased 1.6 million gallons per day (8.6%), while wholesales climbed 20.8 million gallons per day (8.3%). DTW sales accounted for 6.5% of wholesales, while rack and bulk sales made up 90.9% and 2.6%, respectively.

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    Past Events by Category

    Lessons Learned from COVID-19: A 'Fireside Chat' with Dr. Anthony Fauci

    Anthony Fauci, M.D., NIAID, NIH
    Category: COVID-19

    Read more 2,178 views (1,778 live, 400 VOD) - Runtime: 00:28:03

    NCI Clinical Trials and Translational Research Advisory Committee (CTAC) Ad hoc Translational Research Strategy Subcommittee Virtual Meeting - June 2021

    Read more 79 views (68 live, 11 VOD) - Runtime: 01:00:58

    NCI Council of Research Advocates - June 2021

    Read more 75 views (39 live, 36 VOD) - Runtime: 02:31:28

    CC Grand Rounds: Translational Strategies for Autosomal Recessive and Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Gregory G. Germino, MD Deputy Director, NIDDK and Senior Investigator, Kidney Disease Branch, NIDDK, NIH and Lisa M. Guay-Woodford, MD McGehee Joyce Professor of Pediatrics, Director, Center for Translational Research Director, Clinical and Translational Research Institute at Children’s National Research Institute
    Category: Clinical Center Grand Rounds

    Read more 157 views (137 live, 20 VOD) - Runtime: 01:01:08

    Joint Meeting of the NCI Board of Scientific Advisors (BSA) and the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) - June 2021 (Day 2)

    Read more 254 views (199 live, 55 VOD) - Runtime: 02:09:34

    Summit on Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies for Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Remaining Questions

    Dr. Francis Collins, NIH, Dr. Janet Woodcock, FDA and Dr. Anthony Fauci, NIAID, NIH
    Category: Conferences

    Read more 1,609 views (1,589 live, 20 VOD) - Runtime: 05:03:30

    Joint Meeting of the NCI Board of Scientific Advisors (BSA) and the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) - June 2021 (Day 1)

    Read more 513 views (416 live, 97 VOD) - Runtime: 03:12:20

    Joint Meeting of the NCI Board of Scientific Advisors (BSA) and the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) - Planning and Budget Subcommittee Meeting - June 2021

    Read more 151 views (126 live, 25 VOD) - Runtime: 00:55:48

    NHLBI COVID-19 Insights: COVID-19 Related Coagulopathies NIH Only

    James H. Morrissey, Ph.D., University of Michigan Medical School
    Category: NIH Only

    Read more 119 views (78 live, 41 VOD) - Runtime: 00:58:57

    National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Advisory Council Meeting - June 2021 (Day 2)

    National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH
    Category: NCATS Council

    Read more 582 views (414 live, 168 VOD) - Runtime: 03:58:50

    Day 133 June 1, 2011 - History

    The Stonewall Riot and Its Aftermath

    Guest Curator (Cases 1 & 2): Ken Harlin, Starr East Asian Library, Columbia University

    On Friday evening, June 27, 1969, the New York City tactical police force raided a popular Greenwich Village gay bar, the Stonewall Inn. Raids were not unusual in 1969 in fact, they were conducted regularly without much resistance. However, that night the street erupted into violent protest as the crowds in the bar fought back. The backlash and several nights of protest that followed have come to be known as the Stonewall Riots.

    Prior to that summer there was little public expression of the lives and experiences of gays and lesbians. The Stonewall Riots marked the beginning of the gay liberation movement that has transformed the oppression of gays and lesbians into calls for pride and action. In the past twenty-five years we have all been witness to an astonishing flowering of gay culture that has changed this country and beyond, forever.

    Featured here are clippings from the local New York City press reporting the "melee" in 1969, along with firsthand accounts published in later years about that night.

    Martin Duberman. Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey. New York: Penguin, 1991.

    Martin Duberman. Stonewall. New York: Penguin, 1993.

    Chant sung "Rockette style" by a "chorus line of mocking queens." Duberman, Stonewall, p. 200.

    "At this point I had already discovered the bars. I suppose my gay life pretty much revolved around going to the bars, even though there was always the threat of bar raids--everyone heard about them. But the only raid where I was actually inside the bar was at the Stonewall. That was in late June 1969. The Stonewall was my favorite place. It was a dive. It was shabby, . " (Click for more . )

    Eric Marcus. Making History: The Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Equal Rights, 1945-1990. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

    July 3, 1969 "Gay Power Comes to Sheridan Square," (View from Outside) by Lucian Truscott IV, Village Voice, 7/3/69:

    "Sheriden Square this weekend looked like something from a William Burroughs novel, as the sudden specter of 'gay power' raised its brazen head and spat out a fairy tale the likes of which the area has never seen . " Page Images -- Transcription

    Photos from p. 1 of the Village Voice, 7/3/69

    "Full Moon over the Stonewall," (View from Inside) by Howard Smith, Village Voice, 7/3/69:

    "During the 'gay power' riots at the Stonewall last Friday night I found myself on what seemed to me the wrong side of the blue line. Very scary. Very enlightening. " (More)

    Gay Freedom 1970: A Commemorative Pictorial Essay of the First Anniversary of the Gay Liberation Movement. By the Editors of QQ Magazine. New York: Queen's Quarterly Publishing Co., 1970.

    Laud Humphreys. Out of the Closets: The Sociology of Homosexual Liberation. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.

    Humphreys, Out of the Closets, p. 5

    Stonewall Inn Designation as National Historic Landmark, 2/16/2000

      (pdf) -- Includes excellent description of the historic significance of the site and the event.

    Watch the video: June 1 2011 (June 2022).