Tiglath Pileser III Timeline

  • 746 BCE

    Ashur Nirari V, King of Assyria, deposed in palace coup. Tiglath Pileser III assumes the throne.

  • 745 BCE - 727 BCE

  • c. 745 BCE - c. 743 BCE

    Tiglath Pileser III restructures the Assyrian Empire and Military.

  • c. 743 BCE

    Tiglath Pileser III's conquest of the Kingdom of Urartu.

  • 741 BCE

    Siege of Arpad.

  • c. 740 BCE

  • 736 BCE

    Conquest of the Medes and the Persians.

  • 729 BCE

    Intervention in Babylonian Civil War. Tiglath Pileser III crowns himself king of Babylon.

  • 729 BCE

    Tiglath Pileser III reigns at height as King of Babylon and Assyria.

  • 727 BCE

    Death of Tiglath Pileser III. His son Shalmaneser V becomes king.

The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

Reigning of KING Uzziah

1) victories over surrounding areas (nations):

(built Elath --- Elath was annexed to Judah by David, who established there an extensive commerce, [2 Samuel 8:14]. Solomon also built ships there [2 Chronicles 8:17,18]. In the reign of Joram the Edomites recovered it, but lost it again to Uzziah),

Tiglath Pileser III Timeline - History


The first exile was the Assyrian exile, the expulsion from the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) begun by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 733 BCE. The story of the Diaspora is the Jewish story outside Israel and Judea from then till today.
Jews were largely concentrated in North America (44%)
and the Middle East-North Africa region (41%) in 2010.
Most of the remainder was in Europe (10%)
and the Latin America-Caribbean region (3%) (Pew Research Center).

In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions and they have also fled from areas after experiencing ostracism and threats of various kinds by various local authorities seeking refuge in other countries.

The Land of Israel has been regarded by Jews as their homeland After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel adopted the 1950 Law of Return which restored Israel as the Jewish homeland and made it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees both at that time and into the future. This law was intended to encourage Jews to return to their homeland in Israel.

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

In terms of the Hebrew Bible, the term "Exile" denotes the fate of the Israelites who were taken into exile from the Kingdom of Israel during the 8th century BCE, and the Judahites from the Kingdom of Judah who were taken into exile during the 6th century BCE. While in exile, the Judahites became known as "Jews" (יְהוּדִים, or Yehudim), "Mordecai the Jew" from the Book of Esther being the first biblical mention of the term.

The first exile was the Assyrian exile, the expulsion from the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) begun by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria in 733 BCE. This process was completed by Sargon II with the destruction of the kingdom in 722 BCE, concluding a three-year siege of Samaria begun by Shalmaneser V. The next experience of exile was the Babylonian captivity, in which portions of the population of the Kingdom of Judah were deported in 597 BCE and again in 586 BCE by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar II.

A Jewish diaspora existed for several centuries before the fall of the Second Temple, and their dwelling in other countries for the most part was not a result of compulsory dislocation. Before the middle of the first century CE, in addition to Judea, Syria and Babylonia, large Jewish communities existed in the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Egypt, Crete and Cyrenaica, and in Rome itself after the Siege of Jerusalem in 63 BCE, when the Hasmonean kingdom became a protectorate of Rome, emigration intensified. In 6 CE the region was organized as the Roman province of Judea. The Judean population revolted against the Roman Empire in 66 CE in the First Jewish–Roman War which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. During the siege, the Romans destroyed the Second Temple and most of Jerusalem. This watershed moment, the elimination of the symbolic centre of Judaism and Jewish identity constrained many Jews to reformulate a new self-definition and adjust their existence to the prospect of an indefinite period of displacement.

In 132 CE, Bar Kokhba led a rebellion against Hadrian, a revolt connected with the renaming of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina. After four years of devastating warfare, the uprising was suppressed, and Jews were forbidden access to Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, due to increasing migration and resettlement, Jews divided into distinct regional groups which today are generally addressed according to two primary geographical groupings: the Ashkenazi of Northern and Eastern Europe, and the Sephardic Jews of Iberia (Spain and Portugal), North Africa and the Middle East. These groups have parallel histories sharing many cultural similarities as well as a series of massacres, persecutions and expulsions, such as the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the expulsion from England in 1290, and the expulsion from Arab countries in 1948–1973. Although the two branches comprise many unique ethno-cultural practices and have links to their local host populations (such as Central Europeans for the Ashkenazim and Hispanics and Arabs for the Sephardim), their shared religion and ancestry, as well as their continuous communication and population transfers, has been responsible for a unified sense of cultural and religious Jewish identity between Sephardim and Ashkenazim from the late Roman period to the present.


Each definition i s valid, yet each is elusive, none quite cap­turing the Jewish spirit. Until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, it would clearly have been impossible to call them a nation they were the Diaspora: the dispersed ones from the land to which they are now returning.
(From front cover of ‘The Diaspora’ - Keller)

The Jews are unique in world history. They became stateless following their defeat in 135CE by the Romans (see Jewish-Roman wars).
In 1948 - almost 2,000 years later - the United Nations created Israel allowing them to return home and creation of the state of Israel.

It was invaded on the following day by neighbouring Arab states intent on its abolition. Go to Israel to see how it was created and survived.
How, with no state, did the Hebrew language survive for 2,000 years
and then become the language of Israel ?

This return happened after the Holocaust when 6,000,000 Jews where murdered by the Nazis. The arguments by the vocal group who deny this happened in whole or in part are described in Denial.

Misleading information about the Jews circulated during the past 2.000 years and still circulates today is summarised in antisemitism

So, what is a Diaspora, when was the first Diaspora and how did the Jews stay together for so long and then create the only democracy in the Middle East?

The first Jewish expulsion was in 733BCE
from Samaria (Israel/Judah) by King Tiglath-Pileser III

See also Timeline by Country

(Hebrew History Federation )

The dispersions of the Jews from their homelands proved to be both a bane and a boon. Again and again Jews were ripped from their roots. Again and again Jews were obliged to make a new life in strange surroundings. Nonetheless, some factors worked in their favor. Most importantly, the Jews were a literate people who shared a common language with their relatives and compatriots in other lands. The Jews have not only been the "People of the Book" but the people who, in the main, could read a book. Literacy leads not only to learning but to the transfer of information from persons unknown, even from persons long dead. Importantly, it leads to the ability to communicate over time and space.

The Jews enjoyed a commercial advantage by virtue of familial ties and ability to communicate. Having a common interest, they established commercial liaisons of mutual benefit, and were, often uniquely, able to issue letters of credit that were certain to be honored months later from distant lands.

Throughout the ages the participation of the Jews in the evolution of commerce was far out of proportion to their numbers. Jewish communities were rarely deployed into primitive hinterlands, but in ports that gave them access to their peers abroad, or along trade routes, or in centers at the forefront of the technological revolution. Subsequent displacements widened the web of their commercial contacts. Jews became integral to the international trade of the countries into which they settled or were hurled. Inter-national intercourse became part and parcel of Jewish life.

Erudite Jewish traveler-traders maintained an interchange of Judaic law and cultural precepts between the dispersed communities. Jewish identity was preserved through the links provided by world-girdling sages.

(this illustrates why Jews
move from one country to another)

Hence from 1881, this vicious, mounting and cumulatively over­whelming pressure on Russian Jewry produced the inevitable consequence- a panic flight of Jews from Russia westwards. Thus 1881 was the most important year in Jewish history since 1648, indeed since the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 . Its consequences were so wide and fundamental, that it must be judged a key year in world history too. The first big rush to get out came in 1881—2. Thereafter Jews left at an average of 50,000—60,000 a year. With the Moscow expulsions, 110,000 Russian Jews left in 1891 and 137,000 in 1892.

In the pogrom year 1905—6, over 200,000 Jews left. The exodus was by no means confined to Russia. Between 1881 and 1914 more than 350,000 Jews left Austrian Galicia. More Jews emigrated from Lithuania, where they were also under pressure. The net result was not to reduce the Jewish population of eastern Europe. In 1914 there were still five and a half million Jews in Russia and two and a half million in the Austrian empire. What the movement did was to take the natural population increase, some two and a half million, and transfer it elsewhere.

Therein lay momentous effects, both for the Jews and for the world. We must now examine them in turn.

Of these emigrants, more than two million went to the United States alone, and the most obvious and visible consequence, therefore, was the creation of a mass American urban Jewry. This was a completely new phenomenon, which in time changed the whole balance of Jewish power and influence in the world, and it came quite suddenly. The original Jewish settlement in America was small and slow to expand. As late as 1820 there were only about 4,000 Jews in the United States, and only seven of the original thirteen states recognized them politically. The slow growth of the community is hard to understand,

Why can’t the missing years of Tiglath-pileser III be explained by Assyrian chronology?

In most academic circles, it is considered heresy to suggest that the kings chronology derived from the Assyrian Eponym List and the Assyrian Chronicles is in error. However, one example of contradictions in the Assyrian record should be enough to make an honest seeker take a second and serious look at the possibility that traditional Assyrian chronology is wrong. That example involves the length of reign attributed by Assyriologists to Tiglath-pileser III, which traditional academic scholarship says began in 745 BCE.

Proponents of the Assyrian chronological order say that he reigned as king for eighteen years. However, the reign of Tiglath-pileser III is known from the Assyrian records to have spanned the reigns of Menahem of Israel, who paid him tribute, and Hoshea of Israel, who he appointed king of Israel, both events verified in Assyrian inscriptions. Between Menahem and Hoshea, there were two kings, Pekahiah and Pekah, who together reigned at least 20 years.

If it is assumed that Menahem paid tribute in his last regnal year, that Pekahiah succeeded Menahem and ruled for two years, that Pekahiah was killed by Pekah who then ruled over Israel for 18 years (the first two years of his 20-year reign assumed to have been concurrent with the reign of Pekahiah), and that Hoshea, who killed Pekah, was appointed king in 731 BCE (after Tiglath-pileser’s 732 BCE western campaign and five years before his death in 727 BCE), then the numbers don’t add up to confirm an 18-year reign for Tiglath-pileser.

Kings of Israel during the reign of Tiglath-pileser III

Adding up the figures for the reigns shown above, (1 + 1.5 + 17.5 + 4.5) gives 24.5 years as the minimum possible total for the reign of Tiglath-pileser III, and the total could be considerably higher if using the possible figures (10 + 2 + 18.5 + 5), which give 35.5 years for his reign.

In addition, the Jewish Seder Olam says that Ahaz and Hoshea were vassals of Tiglath-pileser for eight years, and the only way that could have happened is if Israel was without a king in Samaria for those eight years while Hoshea was governor, probably in Gilead, between his murder of Pekah and his appointment as king in Samaria during or after Tiglath-pileser’s 732 BCE campaign. In that case, that would add an additional eight years to the minimum reign of Tiglath-pileser, making it a minimum of 32.5 years, or possibly 44 years if Menahem paid his tribute early in his reign, which is likely.

So, something is seriously wrong with the length of reign attributed to Tiglath-pileser III now currently accepted as 18 years in duration by Assyriologists and both secular and biblical historians. Even though the Eponym List and Chronicles seem to indicate the length of his reign to have been eighteen years (the Babylonian Chronicles leave a blank space for the length of his reign, indicating some degree of confusion about how long he reigned in ancient times), that 18-year figure simply cannot reflect the full story of what happened in history.

Since the symbols for the numbers 󈬂” and 󈬠” are so similar, perhaps the cuneiform tablet from which Assyriologists derive his reign as being 18 years in duration could have read 󈬠” instead? If in poor condition at the point where 󈬂 years” is read, it could allow such and adjustment, and the harmonized Hebrew kings chronology from the Bible requires it.

In my book, Rethinking Ancient Near East Chronology (available for free download in PDF format, see “Free Books” link below), I show that there are thirty eponyms missing from the traditional Assyrian Eponym Canon as accepted by modern scholars, identifying where the thirty eponyms are missing and speculating how they were overlooked. Using an adjusted Assyrian chronology (by including the biblical data, which secular scholarship chooses to ignore for the most part), I offer an alternative chronology that perfectly realigns the adjusted Assyrian regnal chronology with the chronologies of the kings of Israel, Judah, Egypt, Babylon, and Tyre from 1006 BCE to 560 BCE.

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Tiglath-pileser III

The manner of Tiglath-Pileser's accession to the throne has been a subject of debate due to the conflicting written evidence about his parentage. It is unusual in that there are surprisingly few references to Tiglath-Pileser's father. Among the references that do exist, there is an inscribed brick from Ashur stating that he was the son of Adad-Nirari, most likely referring to Adad-Nirari III (810-783). On the other hand, a witness of the Assyrian king list states that he was the son of Ashur-Nirari, meaning Ashur-Nirari V (754-745). As Grayson goes on to discuss, the most likely resolutions of this contradiction are either that the scribe of the king list witness made an error, meaning to write Adad-Nirari instead of Ashur-Nirari, the latter being the elder brother of Tiglath-Pileser, or the scribe of the brick inscription purposefully wrote Adad-Nirari when in fact he was not the son of royalty (CAH III/2 pg. 73). Grayson also cites Tiglath-Pileser's use of the vague royal epithet "offspring of Baltil" (which refers to an ancient quarter of Ashur) as evidence that the new king wished to avoid direct references to his pedigree (ibid. pg. 74).

By the beginning of Tiglath-Pileser's reign, Urartu's influence had extended enormously, drawing some of the Syrian states away from Assyria, and taking control of part of Mannea and possibly reaching down to the Khorasan route connecting Ecbatana and the Babylonian plain (Kuhrt 496).

Invaded Urartu up to the capital city of Tushpa on Lake Van.

Extended provincial status to some north Syrian states and Damascus, made vassal kingdoms in Palestine up to Egypt. Governed Babylon directly as king.

After Kadesh – a Nineteenth Dynasty Timeline

Looks like the Assyrians had some neat ideas as far as agriculture goes.



Since the Tigris and Euphrates did not flood as regularly and predictably as the Nile did, the Assyrians built canals starting in Sumerian times. Maintaining the canals was the government’s duty since the nation’s very existence depended on it.

For thousands of years, life in the area followed the same rhythm. The rivers flooded in the spring and canal walls were manually breached to allow the water to flood the fields. The fields would be plowed in the autumn, using four oxen to a simple wooden plow. Three men were needed to guide the oxen, especially when turning around at the end of the furrow. In October, the fields were seeded and then flooded again.

An Assyrian mechanical seeder, circa 1500 BC

Often the fields would be watered once a winter month, using a shaduf.

An Egyptian shaduf – Assyrian ones were almost identical

From April to June, various foodstuffs were harvested and then the cycle began again.

King Tukulti-apal-Esharra boasted that:

I had plows put into operation throughout the whole land of Assyria, whereby I heaped up more piles of grain than my ancestors. I established herds of horses, cattle and donkeys from the booty which by the help of my Lord Ashur I had taken from the lands over which I had won dominion.

The main reason for the king to be so concerned with food production (“piles of grain”) was the manpower availability for Assyria’s near-constant wars. The more food a single field could produce, the less fields were necessary to feed the nation, therefore more men were freed up to go serve in the army.

That said, the armies of the time were all – whether Assyrian, Egyptian or Babylonian – subject to the same cycle that governed the rest of their lives. When harvest time came, the majority had to be disbanded in order to work the fields. This often prevented decisive victories.


The next update will also mention Tukulti-apal-Esharra, but this time in a military context.

As far as agriculture and irrigation are concerned, the site I used[1] mentions Archimedes screw, aqueducts, stone blocks serving as sluice gate and the qanat system. What could be the earliest for a Middle Eastern culture to come up with those? The Egyptians would probably have to 'snatch" those new ideas from neighbors, but Babylonia, Assyria, any of the post-Hatti or Aramean states are probably fair game.


Another interlude 'in the spirit of the season'.

Ancient Egyptian sport

In addition to simple ball games and board games such as senet, the Egyptians also practiced quite a lot of sports. The common men (and women!) practiced sport to keep fit, while the nobles and royalty did so for the entertainment. Amenhotep II of the Eighteenth Dynasty was very proud of his skill in archery, running, rowing and his love of horses. However, there was probably a reason why the Heb Sed festival involved the pharaoh running around a courtyard.

It is highly likely that the ancient Egyptians, who regarded physical ability highly, saw keeping fit as something important for all social groups. The young nobles swam in their pools, not in the Nile, and wrestled with their peers, not the common rabble, but the idea was the same.

Some of the sport events, such as javelin throw, archery, horse riding and chariot races, evolved from hunting and war. Others, such as swimming and rowing, were simply necessary in a land where most travel was on a river.

Regular games were held at Akhmim, and the judges were not just locals, with some coming from the Asia or Africa.[2] The nobles and royalty attended those games and provided the necessary equipment. Both winner and loser were met with applause, one for winning and the other for sporting spirit. However, the winners also received an ornate collar known as usekh, the color indicating their placement.

A collar a sportsman might receive (made from faience), not unlike the golden ones handed out by the pharaoh as a sign of favor

The sports practiced included[1]:

I am now thinking that I could cover sport development in the future, just as I plan to cover languages or religion a couple hundred years from *Setnakht!

[1] I am aware of some sites adding e.g. high jump or weightlifting to the list. Or handball based on a picture of four girls throwing a ball. I believe this to be a gross exaggeration.

[2] Just a theory OTL, but you probably saw that I like neat theories


Oookay, I don't know why some pictures aren't showing up in the update.

Also I'm going sailing for a couple days with my folks, so the Tiglath-Pileser update will be delayed yet again. So sorry about that.

And I'm constantly getting sidetracked. I was looking up rice because my Mum got a booklet with Asian cuisine recipes and they obviously use a ton of the stuff, and I discovered rice is used in Middle Eastern cuisine, so I'm now trying to figure out when/how it was introduced to the region since it is supposedly grown in the Nile Delta. Would it help my ancients produce more food/sustenance/whatever? Population boom in Egypt/Canaan/Assyria since I guess all three have regions where it could be cultivated?


The extent of the Assyrian empire under Tiglath-Pileser I is marked in olive

Tukulti-apal-Esharra’s first campaign, three years after his ascension in 1124 BC, was against the Mushku in the Upper Euphrates. Then he expanded into the Kummutu[1] region (northeast of Cilicia) and eastern Cappadocia and drove out the Hittites from the Subartu province (near Meliddu[2]). In his fifth year, he attacked Comana in Cappadocia and built a fortress in the Cilicia. The copper plates there contain a record of his victories.

He next focused on the Arameans to the north, reaching the sources of the Tigris. An Assyrian relief claims he campaigned against them a grand total of 28 times during his entire reign.

Tiglath-Pileser wrestled the control of the Sagurru[3] river from the Hittite remnants and established the town of Pitru at the junction of Sagurru and Euphrates. This allowed him to control of the high road to the Mediterranean.

Pitru was to the immediate east of the ‘Barrage de’ part of the ‘Barrage de Kayacik’ label

From there, Tiglath-Pileser simply followed the route to the great sea.

Arwad, the southernmost point of Tiglath-Pileser’s campaigns

On Arwad (which is an island), the king supposedly embarked on a ship and killed a nahiru (“sea-horse”), probably a hippopotamus or a dolphin.[4]

Tukulti-apal-Esharra’s campaigns reached the Mediterranean basin, therefore putting him in indirect contact with the Habiru. “Tiglath-Pileser” is how they wrote down his royal name.[5]

[1] IOTL better known as Commagene

[2] Name probably comes from Hatti melid ‘honey’. IOTL better known as Malatya

[5] All OTL facts although IOTL the Hebrews named Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BC and the name simply stuck and was applied to his earlier namesakes

Dathi THorfinnsson

Dathi THorfinnsson

1) the range of narwhals is pretty much restricted to arctic or near arctic waters. Getting one into the Med is theoretically possible, weirder things have happened, but why 'narwhal' and not 'dolphin' or even 'hippopotamus' (river horse, not sea horse, but hey).
2) apparently that word means 'illumination' in Hebrew. Totally irrelevant, but it makes googling harder.



Edited the update to fix the goof pointed out by Dathi. Also fixed the pictures. No idea how they broke since I just copied from the same source I did the first time.

Likes are all nice and well but I'd like to see some feedback. Do you want time-skips? Interludes? Or should I stick to the chronology of events?


Any ideas? I don't have the notes for the next update finished yet, and a couple of half-done updates on various stuff (languages, deities) but those would be set after a fairly big time-skip. Do you want them or do you want Queen Neith (as Neithneferu would be known in this timeline's "modern" times, similar to how Tutankhamun is just "Tut")?

@NikoZnate? @Jonathan Edelstein? You guys once expressed an interest in the TL.


Since you couldn't decide, let's have another of 'see how Egypt's neighbors develop' updates.

The Sea Peoples’ scourge did not hit several cities in the Djahi – Gebal[1], Sur[2] and Sidon – for unknown reasons. It is important to note that the cities have been in existence for thousands of years at the time – Gebal and Sur date back to 3rd millennium BC while no definite date can be found for the beginnings of Sidon, which was founded by a party from Sur.

After the Sea People, the three cities formed a loose confederation called the Kinahni[3] and came to control the coastline of Djahi. Since they could not expand inland due to the presence of the Egypt-backed Habiru, they focused on the maritime pursuits. They quickly became a naval power.

The Kinahni mostly exported a local specialty – a purple dye made from a shell of a sea snail. They used it to dye textiles, but they also exported glass and earthenware jars. They sold wine and lumber to Egypt. They imported both copper (from Cyprus) and tin (origin unknown) as well as silver from Sardinia and the Iberian peninsula.

The trade network of the Kinahni

The Kinahni was variously headed by either Gebal or Sur, depending on which city was stronger at the moment. The society rested on three pillars – the king, the temples and a council of elders.

King Ahiram’s sarcophagus from 11th century BC (bearing the oldest known inscription in Phoenician)

The inscription, written in an abjad script (therefore one mark stands for one consonant, with vowels omitted completely) reads:

A coffin made it [It]tobaal, son of Ahirom, king of Byblos, for Ahirom, his father, lo, thus he put him in seclusion. Now, if a king among kings and a governor among governors and a commander of an army should come up against Byblos and when he then uncovers this coffin – (then) may strip off the sceptre of his judiciary, may be overturned the throne of his kingdom, and peace and quiet may flee from Byblos. And as for him, one should cancel his registration concerning the libation tube of the memorial sacrifice.

The Kinahni venerated a small pantheon of deities, largely similar to those venerated by their Canaanite neighbors, and were known to be very religious. The main gods of Gebal was Resheph, a war god, and Baal, a storm god. Sur venerated Melqart and Sidon venerated Ashtarte and Eshmun. It’s worth noting that the names of the deities were often common titles – Baal meant ‘master’, Melqart ‘king of the city’, Adonis ‘lord’. The cities also developed religious institutions called marzeh ‘place of reunion’ which developed into elite fraternities/festival groups, with individual members treating each other as trusted ‘kin’.

The Kinahni language was an Afro-Asiatic language from the Semitic family, therefore closely related to the language of the Habiru and other Canaanites and less closely related to Akkadian which was East Semitic while the others are West or Central Semitic. Similar to Habiru, the language makes use of triconsonantal roots and vowel changes. In contrast, Egyptian has many biconsonantal roots, not just triconsonantal.[4]

[1] Better known as Byblos IOTL

[2] Known as Tyre IOTL, from Greek transliteration

[3] Name probably derived from Akkadian kinahhu ‘red-dyed wool’ or from Egyptian fenkhu ‘Asiatics’.

[4] So with all those linguistic differences, how did they trade with the Egyptians?

At the Nexus of History and Memory: The Ten Lost Tribes

In 883 CE, a man appeared in Kairouan, one of the centers of Jewish life at the time and told a tale about the lost tribes of the Northern Kingdom. He called himself Eldad and claimed to be from the tribe of Dan. Since then, the story of the Ten Lost Tribes—that the tribes of the Northern Kingdom still exist intact in a faraway land, living in exile beyond the sabbatical river, a mysterious body of water that was passable only on the Sabbath—has continued to generate excitement. It is astonishing, however, to realize that this motif did not develop until many centuries after the fall of the Northern Kingdom. After the destruction of the Northern Kingdom, many northerners remained in their ancestral homeland in the north. Other northerners lived among their southern compatriots in Judah after fleeing south, while deported northerners and southerners mingled in exile in Mesopotamia. It is only after the end of the Second Temple period that the notion of the Ten Lost Tribes, inviolable and unreachable, developed.

King Ahaz&rsquos Tribute: Proof From an Assyrian Inscription

D iscovered in 1873 by Austen Henry Layard in the ancient Assyrian palace of Nimrud, the Tiglath-Pileser iii Summary Inscription Seven lists numerous conquests and building operations of one of Assyria’s most powerful kings, reigning from circa 745 to 727 b.c.e. And the 24 x 19 centimeter clay tablet, dating to circa 729 b.c.e., contains the first known extra-biblical proof of Ahaz, king of Judah.


King Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign (circa 735 b.c.e .), and was on the throne for 16 years. The Bible states that Ahaz “did not that which was right in the sight of the Lord his God,” but instead he made idols, sacrificed his children to Molech, and observed pagan rituals (2 Kings 16:1-4 2 Chronicles 28:1-4). As a result of his sins, God caused the surrounding nations to rise up and form a confederation against Judah.

Both king Rezin of Syria and king Pekah of Israel came and besieged Jerusalem, but could not break through the city walls. Instead, they moved south toward Elath and joined forces with the Edomites. “At that time Rezin king of Aram recovered Elath to Aram, and drove the Jews from Elath and the Edomites came to Elath, and dwelt there, unto this day” (2 Kings 16:6 Jerusalem Publication Society). The Philistines also invaded Judah’s cities in the south: Beth-shemesh, Ajalon, Gederoth, Shocho, Gimzo and the mining region of Timnah.

Judah found itself surrounded. As a result of the invasions, it suffered great losses. “For Pekah the son of Remaliah slew in Judah a hundred and twenty thousand in one day, all of them valiant men” (2 Chronicles 28:6 jps ). The inhabitants of Judah were experiencing this suffering “because they had forsaken the Lord, the God of their fathers.” God “brought Judah low because of Ahaz … for he made Judah naked, and transgressed sore against the Lord” (verse 19 King James Version).

The Tribute of Ahaz

At that time, King Ahaz sought help from the Assyrians. He sent messengers to King Tiglath-Pileser iii , saying, Come up, and save me out of the hands of my enemies. “And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king’s house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria” (2 Kings 16:8 jps ).

This tribute that Ahaz took from the temple is confirmed by the discovery of Summary Inscription Seven from Tiglath-Pileser’s palace. Part of the inscription reads:

From these I received tribute … Sanipu of Ammon, Salamanu of Moab, … Mitinti of Ashkelon, Jehoahaz [Ahaz] of Judah, Kaush-malaku of Edom, … Hanno of Gaza … including gold, silver, iron, fine cloth and many garments made from wool that was dyed in purple … as well as all kinds of lavish gifts from many nations and from the kings that rule over them.

The inscription uses Ahaz’s full name, Jehoahaz, whereas the Bible uses the short form, Ahaz. The text parallels the biblical account, in both tribute and specific materials that Ahaz sent to Tiglath-Pileser. It also describes the Assyrian king receiving tribute from many kings who were in the confederation against Israel—this indicates that after receiving Ahaz’s request for help, Tiglath-Pileser led a military campaign to conquer these different peoples attacking Judah. The Bible states that Tiglath-Pileser attacked King Rezin of Syria and took away many captives (verse 9). The Annals of Tiglath-Pileser mention the Assyrian king receiving tribute from Rezin.

Another artifact, Summary Inscription Four (circa 730 b.c.e .), confirms Tiglath-Pileser’s conquest of the northern kingdom of Israel. Since its discovery, the clay inscription has been lost however, Layard made a paper mache imprint, known as a squeeze, before its disappearance. The inscription reads:

Israel … All its inhabitants (and) their possessions I led to Assyria. They overthrew their King Pekah and I placed Hoshea as king over them. I received from them 10 talents of gold, 1,000 talents of silver as their [tri]bute, and brought them to Assyria.

This inscription confirms several details in the biblical account. “In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took [numerous Israelites cities], and carried them captive to Assyria. And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead” (2 Kings 15:29-30). It is possible that Hoshea colluded with Tiglath-Pileser to replace King Pekah.

These Summary Inscriptions add to the expanding fund of discoveries that help confirm the historical accuracy of the Bible. The biblical kings Ahaz, Pekah, Hoshea, Rezin and Tiglath-Pileser all really lived, Ahaz really did send tribute to the Assyrian king, and Tiglath-Pileser really did attack and conquer much of Israel and subdued the surrounding regions.

The debate about the “accuracy” of the Bible continues to rage. But as time goes on, more and more details are being proved through archaeology. Just how reliable is the Bible? To prove it for yourself, request a free copy of our booklet The Proof of the Bible.

Queens Regnant, or Reigning Queens

George Gower / Getty Images

A queen regnant is a woman who rules in her own right, rather than exercising power as a wife of a king or even a regent. Through most of history, succession was agnatic (through male heirs) with primogeniture being a common practice, where the eldest was first in succession (occasional systems where younger sons were preferred have also existed).

In the 12th century, Norman King Henry I, son of William the Conqueror, faced an unexpected dilemma near the end of his life: his only surviving legitimate son died when his ship capsized en route from the continent to the island. William had his nobles swear support for his daughter’s right to rule in her own right the Empress Matilda, already widowed from her first marriage to the Holy Roman Emperor. When Henry I died, many of the nobles supported her cousin Stephen instead, and a civil war ensued, with Matilda never being formally crowned as queen regnant.

In the 16th century, consider the effect of such rules on Henry VIII and his multiple marriages, probably largely inspired by trying to get a male heir when he and his first wife Catherine of Aragon had only a living daughter, no sons. On the death of Henry VIII’s son, King Edward VI, Protestant supporters tried to install the 16-year-old Lady Jane Grey as queen. Edward had been persuaded by his advisors to name her his successor, contrary to his father’s preference that Henry’s two daughters would be given preference in succession, even though his marriages to their mothers had been annulled and the daughters declared, at various times, to be illegitimate. However, that effort was abortive, and after just nine days, Henry’s elder daughter, Mary, was declared queen as Mary I, England’s first queen regnant. Other women, through Queen Elizabeth II, have been queen's regnant in England and Great Britain.

Some European legal traditions prohibited women from inheriting lands, titles, and offices. This tradition, known as Salic Law, was followed in France, and there were no queens regnant in France’s history. Spain followed Salic Law at times, leading to a 19th-century conflict over whether Isabella II could reign. In the early 12th century, Urraca of Leon and Castile ruled in her own right and, later, Queen Isabella ruled Leon and Castile in her own right and Aragon as co-ruler with Ferdinand. Isabella’s daughter, Juana, was the only remaining heir at Isabella’s death and she became the queen of Leon and Castile, while Ferdinand continued to rule Aragon until his death.

In the 19th century, Queen Victoria's firstborn was a daughter. Victoria did later have a son who then moved ahead of his sister in the royal queue. In the 20th and 21st centuries, several royal houses of Europe have removed the male-preference rule from their succession rules.

Event #5090: Tiglath-Pileser III siezes Assyrian throne

Tiglath-Pileser III ruled Assyrian 745–727 BC. He introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. The Assyrian army, already the greatest fighting force in the world since the time of Ashur-uballit I (1366–1330 BCE), now became the world’s first professional standing army. He is one of the greatest military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.

Tiglath-Pileser III subjugated: his fellow Mesopotamians in Babylonia and Chaldea, the Arabs, Magan, Meluhha, and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula Israel, Judah, Philistia, Samarra, Moab, Edom, the Suteans and Nabatea Urartu, Armenia and Scythia in the Caucasus Mountains, Cimmeria by the Black Sea, and Nairi much of eastern and south western Asia Minor, including the Hittites, Phrygia, Cilicia, Commagene, Tabal, Corduene and Caria the Greeks of Cyprus and Aram (modern Syria), and the Mediterranean City States of Phoenicia/Caanan were subjugated. To the east he subjugated Persia, Media, Gutium, Mannea, Cissia and Elam, and later in his reign, Tiglath-Pileser III was crowned king in Babylonia.

Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire.

A mutilated brick inscription states that he is the son of Adad-nirari (III) however, the Assyrian King List makes Tiglath-pileser (III) the son of Ahur-nirari (V), son of Adad-nirari (III). This is quite a discrepancy for the King list places Adad-nirari III four monarchs before Tiglath-pileser’s reign and depicts Ashur-nirari (V) as both his father and immediate predecessor upon the throne. The list goes on to relate that Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III) were brothers, being the sons of Adad-nirari (III). Ashur-nirari (V) is also said to be a son of Adad-nirari (III), implying brotherhood with Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III). The Assyrian records contain very little information concerning Adad-nirari (III) and nothing about Shalmaneser III (IV) or Ashur-dan III (III). Significantly, an alabaster stele was discovered in 1894 at Tell Abta displaying the name Tiglath-pileser imprinted over that of Shalmaneser (IV), a successor of Adad-Nirari (III) and the third sovereign prior to Tiglath-pileser (III). This find coupled with the aforementioned absence of information relative to Shalmaneser III (IV) and Ashur-dan III (III) strongly implies that Tiglath-pileser was a usurpur to the throne and that he destroyed the records of his three immediate predeccessors—Ashur-nirari (V), Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III). 1

His earliest inscriptions give regular mention of appointing eunuchs as governors of (newly conquered) provinces this removed the threat of provincial rule becoming a dynastic matter. He also reduced the power of his officials by reducing the size of the provinces or, in other cases, provinces were increased to include newly conquered territories, thus decreasing their resources, should they have desired to incite a revolt. Subsequently, there were more provinces, more governors (most of which were eunuchs), and less power per governor. 2

The second reform targeted the army. Instead of a largely native Assyrian army which normally campaigned only in the summer time, Tiglath-Pileser incorporated large numbers of conquered people into the army, thus adding a substantial foreign element. This force mainly comprised the light infantry, whereas the native Assyrians comprised the cavalry, heavy infantry, and charioteers. As a result of Tiglath-Pileser’s military reforms, the Assyrian Empire was armed with a greatly expanded army which could campaign throughout the year. The addition of the cavalry and the chariot contingents to the army was mostly due to the steppe cultures lurking nearby to the north, which sometimes invaded their northern colonies, using mainly cavalry and primitive chariots. 3

Nolen Jones, Dr. Floyd. Chronology of the Old Testament. Master Books. p. 150. ↩

Saggs, H. The Might that was Assyria (London, 1984). ↩

Yehuda Kaplan, “Recruitment of Foreign Soldiers into the Neo-Assyrian Army during the Reign of Tiglath-pileser III,” in Mordechai Cogan and Dan`el Kahn (eds), Treasures on Camels’ Humps: Historical and Literary Studies from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph’al (Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008) ↩

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Tiglath-Pileser III

Tiglath-Pileser III was the king of Assyria. He is mentioned in Second Kings, where he (called "Pul", likely comes from his previous name "Pulu") invaded Israel, and received 1000 talents of silver (38 tons). The king of Israel, Menahem, was wicked, so God used Assyria to punish him and Israel for sinning against God. Ώ]

Again, Tiglath-Pileser came to Israel and took Ijon, Abel Beth Maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead and Galilee, including all the land of Naphtali he deported their people to Assyria. This was during the reign of Pekah king of Israel. ΐ]

Another time, Aram was attacking Israel. Ahaz, the king of Israel at the time, requested help from Tiglath-Pileser and said that he (Ahaz) is his (Tiglath-Pileser's) servant and vassal. Tiglath-Pileser did help, after Ahaz sent him a gift of all the silver and gold from the Temple of the LORD  and the palace treasury. Α]

Watch the video: Tiglath-Pileser III: Digging for Truth Episode 121 (January 2022).