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Islam Timeline

Islam Timeline


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  • 570

    Muhammad is born in Mecca.

  • 610

    Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.

  • 622

    Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.

  • 624

    Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.

  • 625

    Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.

  • 627

    Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.

  • 627

    Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.

  • 628

    Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.

  • 628

    Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.

  • 629

    First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.

  • 629

    Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.

  • 630

    Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.

  • 630

    Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.

  • 630

    Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.

  • 632

    "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.

  • 632

    Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.

  • 632 - 634

    Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 634 - 644

    Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • 637

    Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.

  • 644 - 656

    Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • c. 650

    Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Quran while destroying the others.

  • 651

  • 656 - 661

    Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.

  • Mar 670

    Hasan ibn Ali, Shia Islam's second imam (his father, Ali ibn Abi Talib, being the first imam), is poisoned to death.

  • Oct 680

    Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.

  • 750

  • 750

  • 754 - 775

    Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.

  • 756

    Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.

  • 756 - 788

    Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.

  • 777

    Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.

  • 783

    The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.

  • 784

    Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.

  • 788

    Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.

  • 1031

    Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.

  • 1313 - 1341

    Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.